Winicjusz Kossakowski – Just a talk: The puzzle has solved on its own

©translated by Katarzyna Goliszek© by Winicjusz Kossakowski

(Lidia Czopkiewicz had sent the maps two weeks before sending the text by Winicjusz Kossakowski)

Awaria mapaYears 533-600

 in the series: “Just a talk”


„Polish historians” are really well.

First, it was written what was suitable for the Vatican-German state. However, up to the time when the Catholic-Judeo oriented aristocracy came to the conclusion that they did not need the state and the parliament of the Republic of Poland gave its territories out to its neighbours. The parliament were assured by Jesuit Skarga that they would get a state in ”Heaven” for that deed. Poland disappeared from the map for 123 years. After regaining independence in the II nd Republic, historians reached for the history before the annexation, i.e. the Vatican-German.

The II nd World War
The Polish soldier betrayed by the allies fights for independence, for which the ”allies” give Poland to the Soviets.

Well, historians are fine again. They write rubbish just to get into the Soviet power.
Presently, they came back to German – ”research papers”.
In order to find it out, it is enough to look through the official pages of ”Polish science”.

– German historians are in the worst position. 

How much they have to cudgel their brains and contrive to authenticate the historic German state. and everything disturbs them.

–        Firstly, on the maps of the Franks from 900 AD there is no such state.
– Secondly, all the excavations in the present German territory give us evidence of the Slavic settlement. The names of rivers and old towns, despite the linguistic distortions, speak the Slavic language. But that is not enough – gold and bronze little figures found in Przylwice – Prilwitz on the Rhine, are described with the Slavic runes in the language of the Slavs. Yet, that is not all because recently science dealing with genetics has not been able at all to find the ”Germanic” genes in the nations recognised as Germanic. The genes of the present ”Germans” are made up of the Slavic-Celtic mixture.

Chrobatia 843 mapa francuskaChrobatia-Harwatia year 843 – as it can be seen, Bavaria occupied part of the territories of the Slavic AWARIA (Hawaria-Harwatia)

There are Germans but there are no Germanic genes.

Can you imagine how German ”science” feels, and generally how all the Germanic science feels. The feeling, called frustration, was expressed by the representative of the German  science from the University of Leipzig when he came upon the book titled: ”The Polish Runes Have Started To Speak”. He did not attack the work as no falsity can be proven, but he went for the author and he did so in quite roughly.

The only and exclusive ”basis” for the German science is the map by Ptolemy coming from the II nd AD. On the map, in the territory of the present Germany and Poland it says Germanus.

Seven centuries later, about the 9 th century, the Roman caesar Porphyrogenitus (born in purple) and defendng his state against being taken by the Bulgarians, notes that the ”Germans” speak the Slavic language”.

What language had the Germans spoken seven centuries earlier?

Moreover, geneticists agreed that the Slavic gene R1a mutated in the territory of Poland into the R1a1 gene more that eleven thousand years ago. It is the evidence that the Polish nation has been living in their territories for at least twelve thousand years.

The ”German science”, however, is not interested in such evidence, nor are the quasi Polish. As it has been fixed – it must be so. – Ja wol!!!  Befehl !!!

In Leledrag Marski’s work, I have come across such a text: ”In the logic of word formation of the languages of the old world and in its structure logical, religious, historic, emotional information is encoded. This information testifies – beyond the shadow of a doubt – for the real story”.


Focusing on the above remark, I will try to get on the way of word formation so as to decode a few words. These are only my insights and nobody has to agree with them, although it would be great if professor Miodek confirmed them.

Wrona (Crow), an onomatopoeic word from the fluttering of wings, in the slang – wruna, primarily – fruna, fruwać (fly), fruu…

In the Polish armorial which has kept the names of the old families, is the family – Ślepowron, to which about 200 family second names are ascribed. Ślepowron – a bird hunting at night, smaller than the crow, sometimes called wronek (a small crow). Wronki – the family abode of Ślepowrończykowie. The word spoken with the Russian accent – Wranki. When we return to the primary ”fru…”, we get Frankowie (the Franks). Consequently, the name Franks is the Slavic name.

Mężczyzna (a Man – Male) – How had this word sounded and what had it meant before it took on the present form? The Slavic word ”mana” has already come out of use. We know its initial meaning thanks to the Vedas. Mana means god’s strength permeating the world which is present in the air. The angered deity can, owing to mana, tear off roofs, break trees, lift destroying waves and keep birds in the air. Mana, the god strength, is the first chunk of the word ”man” (in Polish: man – szczyt <top> – zna). Szczyt (top) means the old name of a shield used for defence. As a result,  manszczytzna is a strong and trained defender. The word, in a courteous way, begun to be used to denote every man wearing trousers. 

– Horwati. The eastern pronunciation. It denotes people related to the mountains (mountains – góry <in Polish> – hory>. A Czech chronicler, Kosmas of Prague called Poles Horwaci (Croats). The Poles dwelt the two sides of the mountains and their territory reached as far as the sea. In the pronunciation of the Western Slavs, i.e. the Polish, we pronounce it góra, not hora.
How to call the mountain men gifted with the god might – mana?
Of course – Górmanowie. Beyond the shadow of a doubt this word is purely Polish. In the eastern pronunciation – Horwiti, in the Latin pronunciation which does not have ”Ó” – Germanus.

By that means, the puzzle of the contemporary, falsified history has solved on its own.

The present – national mixture of people use ancient Polish names.

Franki (the Franks) – wranki, wronki (crows, small crows).

Germanie (Germans) – Górmanie.

Indeed, it is not difficult to notice that all the bricks match each other. Even Ptolemy’s map does not contradict ceasar Porphyrogenitus’s words. And the ceasar’s words agree with the latest genetic research. in addition to that, all the maps of Europe, beginning with year ”0” agree with the Franks’ map from the years of 800 and 900. The maps are to be found on the Internet under the name of ”Europe years 900”.

Winicjusz Kossakowski


Tollense (in Polish – historically Dołęża[1], Dolenica[2] or Tolęża[3]/Tołęża[4]) – a river in Germany (Mecklenburg-Front Pomerania). It flows out from the gutter chain of glacial lakes – Tollense and Lieps on the Macklenburg Lakeland (314.2-3); after about 68 km of its course, it powers the Piana river around Demmin town.

  • ·     Linde
  • ·     Datze
  • ·     Aalbach (Malliner Wasser)
  • ·     Mühlenbach
  • ·     Kleiner Landgraben
  • ·     Goldbach
  • ·     Großer Landgraben
  • ·     Augraben

It flows through Neubrandenburg, Altentreptov and Demmin.

The areas on the central and down Tollense were dwelt by the Slavic tribe Doéanie, whereas the areas to the south from them (mainly the surroundings of Lake Tollensesee with the sattlement of Radogoszcz) belonged to warlike Redarowie <Redariers>) 

The Slavic name of the river derives from the word ”dół” (down) or ”dolina” (valley), or according to other sources from ług – a water reservoir, puddle <in Polish kałuża> (see  Łużyce – Lusatia) 


I once worked with a Russian Jew – Mojsie. He claimed that the Jews had given the language to the Germans and the English and that they were related to them. I think that Mojsie fantasized a bit. I don’t know the matter.

VorpommerflysseThe Slavic Front Pomerania 

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62 komentarze do “Winicjusz Kossakowski – Just a talk: The puzzle has solved on its own

  1. Chciałbym zasugeroqa poprawkę do tkstu: Należy usunąc słowo Ren i zastąpic rzeką Tollense oraz poprawic Prilwitz na Prillwitz. Zarówno w polskim oryginale p. Winicjusza Kossakowskiego jak i w angielskim tłumaczeniu.
    Pozdrawiam i życzę dalszej owocnej pracy nad słowiańszczyną i naszą prahistorią.
    Z podziwem. Wacław

    • drycity
      A LONG LIST of these ( about 211 ) Persian Words Common With Other Indo-european Languages (Cognate Words) available here below : on „read more”….
      This is my own compilation from various sources or my own research, and still i am adding to them :

      1 KISS , persian : boos or boosse , spanish : beso , french : baiser , italian : bacio , lithuanian : bucinys , swedish : puss
      2 THUNDER , persian : tondar , german : donner
      3 KNEE , persian : zanu , hindi : janu , french : genou
      4 BREAST or CHEST , persian : sineh (see-ne) , irish : sine ( see-ne) = nipple , tit , italian : seno , french : sein
      5 CRY , persian : geryeh , baluchi : greeten , swedish : grata , danish : græde , norwegian : gråte , icelandic : gráta , french : cri , german : schrei
      6 SUGAR , persian : shekar , pahlavi persian : shakar , sanskrit : śárkarā , french : sucre , german : zucker
      7 THROAT or GULLET , persian : galoo , italian : gola , hindi : gela , russian : gorla , slovenian : grlo , polish : gardlo , croatian : grlo
      8 BALD , persian : kal (in older generations language) , italian : calvo , german : kahl , dutch : kaal , catalan : calb , spanish : calvo
      9 CORPSE , persian : lasheh , german : leiche , hindi : lash
      10 ON FOOT , persian : piadeh , french : a pied , italian : a piedi
      11 SHAME , persian : sharm , german : scham , swedish : scam
      12 ENOUGH , persian : bass , italian & spanish : basta
      13 GOOSE , persian : ghaaz , danish : gas , swedish : gas , spanish : ganso , slovenian : gos
      14 LICK , persian : liss , polish : lizac , slovenian : lizati
      15 MORGUE , persian : marg = death
      16 DEAD , persian : mordeh , french : mort , italian : morto
      17 JACKAL , persian : shaghal , french : chacal , italian : sciacallo , swedish : schakal
      18 THAT , persian : ke , french : que , italian : che , hindi : ki
      19 WHO , persian : ki , french : qui , italian : che
      20 WHAT , persian : che or che chizi , italian : che cosa
      21 MOTHER , persian : madar , italian : madre , spanish : madre , dutch : moeder , old english : modor , french : mere , swedish : mor , slovenian : mati
      22 Another old word for MOTHER , persian : maam , welsh : mam , english : mom or mum
      23 FATHER , persian : pedar , italian : padre , german : vater , dutch : vader
      24 DAUGHTER , persian : dokhtar , german : tochter , dutch : dochter , danish : datter
      25 BROTHER , persian : baradar , german : bruder
      26 SISTER , persian : khahar (but written khwahar) and in rural persian pronounced khwaer , welsh : chwaer (literally pronounced khwaer)
      27 TOOTH , persian : dandan , italian : dente , french : dent , lithuanian : dantis
      28 TWO , persian : do , spanish : dos , italian : duo , lithuanian : du , hindi : do , french : deux
      29 FOUR , Persian : chahar , irish : ceathair (pronounced ka-hir)
      30 FIVE , persian : panj , hindi : panch , greek : penta , polish :pięć (strangely pronounced like peench , like rural areas of iran !, that shows direction of travel of these words is from iran to europe and not vice versa
      31 SIX , persian : shish or shesh , latvian : seši (seshi) , lithuanian : šeši (sheshi) , polish : sześć (shesc) , romanian : şase (shasse) , russian : sheyst , slovak : šesť (shest) , irish : sé (pronounced shay)
      32 EIGHT , persian : hasht , german : acht , irish : ocht , hindi : aat
      33 NINE , persian : noh , italian : nove , hindi : no , french : neuf , german : neun , irish : naoi , swedish: nio
      34 SIXTY , persian : shast , russian : sheyst dee syaat , slovak : šesťdesiat (shestdesiat) , sanskrit : sasta
      35 NEW , persian : no , german : neu , italian : nuovo , hindi : neya , irish : nua , norvegian : nye , romanian : nou , russian : nawvee
      36 NO , persian : nah , romanian : nu , lithuanian : ne
      37 PONDER , persian : pendar , spanish : pensar , portuguese : pensar , italian : pensare , french : penser
      38 INTER , persian : andar , dutch : onder , german : unter
      39 STAR , persian : setareh , avestan persian : star, stara , dutch : ster , italian : stella , german : stern
      40 IS , persian : ast , german : ist , french : est , spanish : es
      41 NOT or IS NOT , persian : nist , french : n’est , german : nicht
      42 YOU or THOU , persian : to , italian : tu , slovenian : ti , german : du , hindi : to
      43 PARADISE , persian : pardis
      44 NAME , persian : naam , german : name , hindi : naam , italian : nome , french : nom
      45 MOUSE , persian : mush , italian : mouse (pronounced mu – ze) , dutch : muis , croatian : mish , russian : mysh
      46 WATER , persian : aab , sardinian : aba , old persian : ap , romanian : apă , sanskrit : aapah , in rural persian : „o” , french : eau
      47 CHIN , persian : chaaneh
      48 DOOR , persian : dar , dutch : deur
      49 YOUNG , persian : javan , italian : giovane , french : jeune , lithuanian : jaunas , sanskrit : yavan , avestan persian : yuvan , latin : juvenis
      50 EARTH , persian : zamin or zemin , avestan persian : zem , latvian : zeme , polish : ziemia , czech : země ,russian : zimliah
      51 COW , persian : gav , sanskrit 3A go or gau
      52 YOKE , persian : yough , german : joch
      53 DEVIL , persian : div , italian : diavolo
      54 STAND , persian : istadan , pahlavi persian : stendag = standing , lithuanian : stendas , old english : standan
      55 NAVEL , persian : naf , icelandic : nafla , german : nabel
      56 NAVE , persian : nav , italian : navata , french : nef
      57 LIP , persian : lab , spanish : labio , italian : labbro , portoguese : labio , danish : læbe
      58 FAR , persian : fara (of course used as a prefix as : faratar= farther , and actual word for far in persian is dur)
      59 WOMAN , persian : zan , croatian : žena , czech : žena , slovak : žena , kurdish : jin , avestan persian : jani , sanskrit : jani , english : gyno- = of woman , like gynecology
      60 WOMAN , persian : banu (meaning lady) , greek : bena , celtic : bean, benw , benyw (welsh)
      61 STATE , persian : ostan , polish : stan , croatian : stanje , icelandic : astand
      62 STONE , irish : cloch , persian : clooch or clookh (of course doesn’t mean stone , but means fist size pieces of hardened and dried mud on outdoors)
      63 MIDDLE or AVERAGE , persian : myaan or myaangin , french : moyen or moyenne , english : mean
      64 ANT , persian : moor , russian : moo raa vey , icelandic : maur , norwegian : maur , danish : myre , dutch : mier , bosnian : mrav
      65 TABLE , persian : miz , slovenian : miza , spanish : mesa , romanian : masă , bulgarian : masa , hindi : mez
      66 SLIPPERY or SMOOTH : persian : liz , french : lisse , portuguese : liso , italian : liscio , catalan : Lliscant , croatian : Kliženje
      67 NAIL , persian : nakhon , sanskrit : nakha , german : nagel
      68 SILVER , persian : sim , greek : asimi
      69 BRANCH (of a tree) , persian : shakheh , sanskrit : shaakha , lithuanian : šaka , hindi : shaaka
      70 FACE , persian : chehreh , middle english. : chere , old french : chiere , spanish : cara …”cheer” in modern english also is from the same root, „be of good cheer,” means, „put on a happy face.”
      71 KEY , persian : cleed or keleed , pahlavi persian : kileel , french : clé , czech : klíč , greek : kleidi , spanish : clave , latin : claudere =to lock up , english : „include” is from the same root, latin includere = shut in …in+ clude ( from latin claudere )
      72 SAINT , avestan persian : espand , romanian : sfânt , sânt , spanish : santo
      73 JUNGLE , persian : jangal , sanskrit : jangala (जंगल) which referred to uncultivated land , hindi : jangal , german : dschungel , russian : džúngli
      74 ORANGE , persian : nārang , sanskrit नारङ्ग (nāranga), meaning „orange tree” , spanish : naranja
      75 NOW , persian : aknun , middle persian : nun , german : nun , latin : nunc , danish : nu , dutch : nu , avestan : nû
      76 FAIRY , persian : pari , armenian : p’eri
      77 FROM , persian : az or ze , croatian : iz , polish : z , slovenian : iz
      78 CHILDREN , persian : bachegan , welsh : bachgen (child , little boy)
      79 AM or I AM , persian : hastam , polish : yestem , czech : ysem
      80 WE ARE , persian : hastim , spanish : estamos , slovak : sme
      81 YOU ARE (sing.) , persian : hasti , croatian : ste , czech : yste , lithuanian : esate , macedonian : ste , polish : yestes , portuguese : esta , slovak : ste
      82 CANDLE , persian : kandeel or ghandeel (a box or pot to let a candle shine in it)
      83 BE AS A PREFIX , persian : beravam , begoft , benush, etc…., english : behold , become , beloved, german : bearbeiten ,benutzen , bemerken, etc….notice that BE functions in three languages the same ,i.e., with or without that BE the verbs meaning is almost the same ,and that BE seems to work just for emphasis
      84 MURDER , persian : mord = died , german : mord , swedish : mord , scottish : mort dutch : moord
      85 EQUAL , persian : yeki (to be one and the same)(yek = one) , sanskrit :eka = one , german : egal
      86 MY , old persian : manā …. in persian „man” means „i” and as you will see here in numorous indo-european languages the word for „my” is a derivative of that „man” in persian meaning „i” as follows…. lithuanian : mano , latvian : mans , danish : min , dutch : mijn , french : mon , german : meine , icelandic : mina , irish : mo , norvegian : min , swedish : min ,
      87 WE , persian : ma , kurdish : me , slovenian : me , latvian : mēs , lithuanian : mes , croatian : mi , russian : mee (pronounced sort of moey)
      88 MAN (adult male) , persian : mard , old persian : martya , armenian : mard = husband , italian : marito = husband , spanish : marido= husband
      89 ORDER (command) , persian : ord , middle persian : ard ,old persian : arta , portuguese : ordem , spanish : orden , scottish gaelic : òrdugh
      90 FOOT , persian : pa , old persian : pad , french : pied , greek ; podi or pato , italian : piede , latvian : pēda , portuguese : pé …pedal and pedicure and etc. are from the same root
      91 CHEEK , persian : gouneh , latin : gena , welsh : genou , greek : genus
      92 WINTER , persian : zemestan , avestan : zimo , polish : zima , latvian : ziemas , lithuanian : žiema, croatian : zima , czech : zimni , russian : zeemaa
      93 STERILE (incapable of producing offspring) , persian : starvan , sanskrit : stari , greek : steiros , gothic : stairo , slovenian : sterilne ,
      94 SEVEN , persian : haft , avestan : hapta , greek : hepta
      95 ROOT (of a plant) , persian : risheh or risha , greek : riza , spanish : raiz , portuguese : raiz
      96 BROW (eyebrow) , persian : abru , croatian : obrva , polish : brew , sanskrit : bhrū , old english : brū , russian : brawf
      97 I AM NOT , persian : nistam , serbian : nisam , slovenian : nisem , slovak : neysem , polish : nie yestem
      98 YOU ARE NOT (sing.) , persian : nisti , serbian : nisi , slovenian : niste , slovak : nieste , polish : nie yesteś
      99 AXE , persian : tabar , russian : topór , romanian : topor
      100 WHERE , persian : koja , isfahani persian : kooja , avestan persian : where = kudā — adverb; ‚where’ — where , russian : kooda
      101 FROM WHERE , persian : az koja or az kooja , avestan persian : where = kudā — adverb; ‚where’ — where , russian : „at kooda”
      102 FEATHER , persian : par, russian : pero , polish : pioro, belarusian : piaro , bulgarian : pero , croatian : pero , czech : peri , macedonian : perduv , slovak : perie ,
      103 GRAB , old persian : grab , persian : gereftan , german : greifen , sanskrit : grabh , danish : greben
      104 COWARD , persian : tarsoo , russian : troos
      105 CLAY , persian : gel or geli or gelin (g pronounced like g in get) , russian : glina , polish : glina , macedonian : glina , croatian : glina , GLUE is also from the same root, from proto indo european „glei” meaning „to glue,paste, stick together”…ancient greek : glia (to glue)…russian : kley = glue
      106 GROW (specially in plants) , persian : rostan , croatian : rasti , czech : roost , macedonian : raste (ras-te) , russian : rasti , serbian :rasti , slovak : rast , ukrainian : zrostaty
      107 PLANT (like a tree or vegetable) , persian : rostani , bulgarian : rastenie , russian : rasténije , serbian : rostlina , czech : rostlin , macedonian : rasteniJata , slovak : rastlin
      108 TIGHT , persian : tang , lithuanian : tankus , sanskrit : tanc (draw together,contract) , french : etanche , hindi : tanga
      109 GOD , old persian : baga , russian : bog , croatian : bog , macedonian :bog , polish : bóg , serbian : bog , ukrainian : boh
      110 I WANT , persian : man khaham or khaham ,in rural persian : khayem or khoyem , , slovenian : khochem , slovak : khchem , russian : ya khahchu , ukrainian : ya khochu
      111 WE WANT , persian :, ma khaheem or khaheem , russian : mo khatim , ukrainian : my khochemo , czech : khcheme , polish : khcheme , slovak : khacheme
      112 QUESTION , persian : porsesh or vapors (as in this persian poem : derazye shab az bimar vapors) , russian : vapros , bulgarian : vǎpros , polish : prosic = ask , sanskrit : prashnam , russian : ask = praaseets
      113 UMBRELLA , persian : chatr , bulgarian : chadŭr , macedonian : chador , hindi : Chātā , sanskrit : chhatra
      114 PILAF , persian : polo , in some rural areas of iran : pelo or pilo , russian : plov , ukrainian : plov , ….otherwise almost all countries in the world : pilaf….oriental dish of rice boiled with meat, from Turkish pilav, from Persian pilaw. Spelling influenced by Modern Greek pilafi, from the Turkish word.
      115 AFTER or LATER, persian : pas or sepas , albanian : pas , latvian : pēc ( pes) , pashton ( part of afghanistan ) : pas le , belarusian : paslia , russian : posle , spustya , spanish : después , portuguese : despois , latin : post = after , english : postpone
      116 COQUETRY or AFFECTIONATE or TENDER , persian : naaz , albanian : naze ( na-ze) , russian : nezhni , czech : nezhni
      117 OH or O , persian : interesting about this oh is this that different countries they use oh, o , akh , ah , okh , oi , ooi, but in persian language actually we use all of those
      118 GIVE , persian : daadan , macedonian : dade (daa-de) , croatian : daati , czech : daat , russian : daat , serbian : daati , slovak ; daat , ukrainian : daati
      119 WE ASK , persian ; ma porsim , russian : moy prosim , polish : prosimi , slovenian : prosimo , albanian : pyesim
      120 WRITE , persian : (neveshtan, nebeshtan , nevis …pahlavi persian : nipishtan) , sanskrit : niviz ( to write down ) , serbian : napišite (napishi-te)…written (serbian & croatian) = napisan
      121 BIND , persian : band (imperative) , german : binden , danish : binde , dutch : binden , norwegian : bind , sanskrit : bandh (to bind)
      122 BAND (a strip to wrap around or tighten ) , persian : band , german : band , dutch : band , swedish : band , norwegian : band , sanskrit : bandham = bondage
      123 GOD , persian : khoda , hindi : khuda , gothic : by god = bi guda , danish : gud , swedish : gud , norwegian : gud
      124 TENT , persian : chador , croatian : shator , hungarian : shator, macedonian : shator , serbian :
      shator , slovenian : shotor , …chador in persian is from the same root of chatr (umbrella) and sanskrit chhatra (umbrella)
      125 WE STAND , persian : ma istim , russian : moy stoim , belarusian : moy staim , bulgarian : stoim , polish : stoimy , portuguese : estamos , spanish : estamos ,
      126 WE GIVE , persian : ma dahim , russian : moy daem , polish : damy , portugese : damos , spanish : damos , polish : dăm , slovenian : damo , italian : diamo , sanskrit : give = daa
      127 PUSS (the face) , persian : poozeh ( lips and mouth of animals, also used for humans when rude), irish : pus = lip, mouth….in many IE languages word for kiss is similar to persian boos or booseh for kiss, which is similar to poozeh and pus meaning lip…swedish : puss= kiss ,albanian : lip = buze, romanian : lip =buze
      128 BRAIN , persian : maghz , avestan persian : mazga , russian: mozg , polish : mózg , croatian :mozak , czech : mozek , macedonian : mozokot , sanskrit : masthaka
      129 FLY ( insect ) , persian : magas , pahlavi persian : magas , makhsh , greek : mýga , russian : mukha , latin : musca , german : mücke , hindi : makkhī , sanskrit : maksika
      130 CHEW , persian : javidan , russian : zhevatʹ , belarusian : žavać , croatian : žvakati , ukrainian : zhuvaty … also the word JAW part of face used to chew , has same common root with persian verb ” javidan” to chew
      131 CHANT , persian : khan (imperative for sing) ,khandan (verb to sing) , latin : cantare ( to sing ) , PIE (proto indo-european) base ” kan-” to sing , {{ SINGER , italian : cantante , persian : khanandeh }}
      132 ANTE or ANT as a suffix , like accountant , persian : „andeh” like „khanandeh” (singer)
      133 TEAR (verb : to pull apart) , persian (in provinces of shiraz and isfahan) : pokidan , serbian : pokida…..also generally in persian : daridan or deridan , proto-indoeuropean : der- , old english : teran
      134 „-AN” , in old english , the infinitive ends in „-an” for nearly all verbs like helpan (to help) ,swimman (to swim)…..the same is true for all persian verbs (infinitive) like raftan ,goftan….in german verbs (infinitive) all end in „-en”
      135 SLIPPER (kind of shoe) ,{ persian :”papoush”=shoe (pa=foot,poush=cover)} , croatian : papuča (papusha) , romanian : papuc , polish : papuć , serbian : papučica (papouchisa) , czech : papuče , greek : shoe= papoútsi , macedonian : pápuča , bosnian : papuča , italian : babbuccia , spanish : babucha….This shows origin of all variatios of the word „papoush” is from Persia ( Iran ),because „papoush” is a combination word, and none of those countries use poush=cover, but they use papoush as footcover=shoe or slipper
      136 -Y (suffix ,like victor victory) , persian : -Y ( pirooz piroozy= victor victory / khoon khoony= blood bloody/shen sheny=sand sandy/baran barany=rain rainy /abr abry= cloud cloudy
      137 QUEST (seek, ask) , persian : khast (but written khwast), middle english : questen , kurdish : khwestin = to want , (persian : khastan ,but written khwastan)
      138 -SHIRE (like yorkshire), persian : -shahr (like iranshahr or etc. …this word was used by sassanids , somewhere i read that the word „sherif” too is related to shehrap (word used by sassanids for royal authority for a city)
      139 -GRAD (like stalingrad or belgrade a suffix in russian or slavic meaning city) , persian : -gerd or -gard( meaning city, like hashtgerd or susangerd)
      140 A- ( negative prefix like amoral) , persian : a- (like amordad =not mortal, amard= not a man, but a boy)
      141 AN- or UN- (negative prefix like unjust), persian : an- (like anahita in avesta= not ahita, ahita means dirty, smeared, etc.)
      142 IMMORTAL , persian : amordad, avestan persian : amertat
      143 RATION (allotment) , old persian & avesta : ratush , ratu- = allotment
      144 -VILLE ( french suffix meaning city ) , persian : -bil like city of ardabil (which its ancient name in iran was artavil meaning „holy city” (arta=holy, vil = city),…. other countries : nashville , louisville etc
      145 HOMO- , as a prefix , : ((Words that include: homo-, hom- (Greek: same, equal, like, similar, common; one and the same).like the word homogenous)),… persian : ham, like hamkar, hamrah, hamsar…it is interesting that in rural and provincial areas of iran this ham is pronounced as hom , like homrah in arak and other provinces…actually persian words are kept more intact as their ancient forms in provinces and rural areas
      146 MAMMAL , persian : mameh = woman’s breast ,tit , portuguese : mama , latin : mamma = breast , romanian : mamelon = teat,nipple
      147 NANNY , persian : naneh or nanah = mother (in common talking) , sanskrit : nana = mother , greek : nanna = aunt ,
      148 Niño (in spanish means child, baby ,infant) , persian : nini = baby or small child
      149 BREAST, TIT, persian : pestan or in informal talking „pestoon” or „pesoon” , spanish : pezón (pronounced peson )
      150 OFFEND , persian : aafand = attack, latin : offendere = „to hit, strike against”
      151 RUSTIC (characteristic of or resembling country people ) , persian : rustaee (people from villages )( pronounced roostaee), persian : rusta (roosta)= village , italian : rustico ( pronounced roostico) , norwegian : rustikk (pronounced roostik), romanian : rustic (roostic), serbian : rustičan (roostisan)…
      152 OWL , persian : buf (boof) , albanian : buf , armenian : bu , portuguese : bufo , romanian : bufniță , spanish : búho , macedonian : buv , latin : bubo
      153 SHIT ( human excrement ) , persian : kekeh (specially around isfahan provinces) , armenian : (k’ak’) , dutch : kak , german : kacke , irish : cac , italian : cacca , latvian : kaka , macedonian : kaka
      154 BONE , persian : ostokhan , greek : osto , portoguese : osso , italian : osso , russian : kost , serbian : koštan
      155 ANEW , persian : azno , or zeno , russian : zanovo , serbian : iznova , slovak : znova , croatian : iznova….the reason of this similarity of persian and slavic languages about the word „anew”, is this : the word „from” in persian is „az” or „ze” , the word „from” in slavic languages is „iz” or „z” and the word „new” in both languages are similar ..and both say „from new” instead of „anew”
      156 ME , persian : the word „man” in persian means ” i ” and in rural areas they say „men” ,me (meh) or „mo” instead of „man” , now you will see almost in all indo-european languages, this „ME” has affinity to the persian words ” man , men, meh , mo” all meaning „I”…lithuanian : man , bosnian : mene , italian : me (meh) , french : moi , greek : mou , russian : mne, croatian : mene , …and more
      157 ATROCITY , latin : ater, atrox = black, darkened with fire, cruelty , avestan persian : athra = fire , pahlavi persian : atur = fire , modern persian : azar = fire
      158 FIRE , persian : azar , polish : żar , belarusian : pažar, bosnian : udar , avestan persian : athra , croatian : vatra , serbian : vatra
      159 ANCHOR , avestan persian : anku = hook , greek : ankura , albanian : ankoroj ( to anchor )
      160 IRON (metal) , pahlavi persian : asin, ahen , german : eisen , kurdish : asin , baluchi : asan , persian : ahan
      161 THIN , persian : tonok , croatian : tanak , belarusian : tonki , bulgarian : tŭnŭk , czech : tenký , macedonian : tenka , russian : tonkiy , ukrainian : tonkyy̆ , serbian : tanak , sanskrit : tanuka
      162 WIDOW , avestan persian : vidhavā , bengali : bidhaba , czech : vdova , dutch : weduwe , german : witwe , gujarati : vidhavā , hindi : vidhavā , tamil : vitavai , italian : vedova , russian: vdova , portuguese : viúva , french : veuve , Talysh (northern iran) : viva , persian : biva or biveh
      163 WORM , persian : kerm , albanian : krimb , irish : cruimh , old irish : cruim , latvian : cērme , lithuanian : kirmėlė
      164 LIVER , persian : jigar , macedonian : džíger (jiger) , bosnian : džigerica (jigernitsa) , latin : jecur , english : jecoral = of or pertaining to the liver , avestan persian : yakara , pahlavi persian : jakar, jagar
      165 JUICE , „liquid extract obtained by boiling herbs,” from Old French jus „juice, sap, liquid” , from Latin ius „broth, sauce, juice” , persian : jush = boiling , sanskrit : yush = juice , broth , avestan persian : yesh : to boil
      166 COTTON , persian : pambeh or panbeh , pahlavi persian : pambak or panbak , albanian : pambuk , armenian : bambak , bosnian : pamuk , bulgarian : pamuk , greek : vamváki , latin : bombicis , romanian : bumbac
      167 WHO IS , persian : kist , or ki-yeh , in isfahan province = ki-es , french : qui est ( ki-yeh) , italian : chi è ( ki-yeh) , portuguese : que está ( kista ) , „who is this ? ” in french = Qui est-ce ? ( ki-es ),….listen to these pronounciations on „google translate” , strangely they sound like persian or iranian !
      168 PISS (urine) , persian : pishab (=urine , literally meaning front water ) , hindi : Pēśāba , polish : pisha , romanian : pişa (pisha) , bosnian : pisham , macedonian : pisham , croatian : pišati (pishati ) , italian : piscio ( pisho) , swedish : pissa , icelandic : pissa , french : pisse , danish : piss….this is another word that shows origin of a lot of indo-european words are persian , because pishab is a combination word and no country uses „pish” as a word for „front”
      169 CAT , persian : pishi ( also sort of calling cat to come forward ) , tajik : pishak , romanian : pisică , baluchi : pishi
      170 KNOW , persian : dana = „a knowing ,wise person” , avestan or old persian : zan or zana = to know , dan or dana = to know , kurdish : zanîn , russian : znat’ , bulgarian : znaya , serbian : znati , macedonian : znáe
      171 WAGE (money paid to worker ) , persian : mozd , old iranian,avestan : mizda , czech : mzda , slovak : mzda , greek : misthós
      172 WOOD , old iranian ,avestan : drav- , russian : drva , albanian : dru , belarusian : dreva , bosnian : drva , bulgarian : dŭrvo , serbian : drva , polish : drewno….in today’s persian „dar” means tree, of course in combination, like dar-o-drakht
      173 CUP , old iranian , pahlavi persian : koppeh or koffe = cup or bowl , today’s persian : koppeh = A pile of earth, gravel, sand, rocks, or debris heaped (like an upside down cup or like a tiny mountain , avestan persian : kaufa= mountain , danish : kop , norwegian : kopp , spanish : copa ,Latin : cupa= „tub, cask” , from PIE(proto indoeuropean) *keup- „a hollow” ( Sanskrit kupah „hollow, pit, cave” , Germanic; Old Frisian kopp „cup, head,” Middle Low German kopp „cup,” Middle Dutch coppe, Dutch kopje „cup, head.” German cognate Kopf now means exclusively „head”…bulgarian : kup = pile, heap , czech : kupa = pile , heap , latvian : čupa , lithuanian : kaupas = pile,heap, polish : kupa = pile, heap , russian : kipa = pile,heap , ukrainian : kupa = pile , heap
      174 TAME , persian : daam= a tame animal, DOMestic animals , Sanskrit damayati= „tames” , latin : domare= „to tame” , greek : daman= to tame , old english : tom = domesticated , old high german : zam
      175 TAME , persian : raam =tamed , lithuanian : ramus
      176 CALM , persian : aaraam , lithuanian : ramus , greek : i̱remía
      177 DOMESTIC , persian : daam= a tame animal, DOMestic animals , Sanskrit damayati= „tames” , latin : domare= „to tame” , greek : daman= to tame , old english : tom = domesticated , old high german : zam
      178 ROB , persian : robudan , roba = robber , pahlavi persian : r6b , from PIE *reup-, *reub- „to snatch” , belarusian : rabavać , polish : rabować , portuguese : roubar
      179 SNOW , pahlavi persian : snexr [snyhl] , snezag [snyeh] , belarusian : snieh , ukrainian : snih , bosnian : snijeg (snieh) , bulgarian : snyag , czech : snih , danish : sne , dutch : sneeuw , russian : sneg , german : schnee
      180 SPHERE , persian : sepehr= sky…pahlavi persian : { spihr [spy(y)hl I (M { from „A CONCISE PAHLAVI DICTIONARY ” by D. N. MAcKENZIE Professor of Iranian Studies at the University of Gottingen } ….also from Wiktionary : {Compare Middle Persian (spihr, “sphere, sky”), Persian سپهر (sepehr, “sky”).}
      181 HERE , persian : eedar ( in some poems) , pahlavi persian : eedar , english : hither , old english : hider , greek : edó̱ , hindi : idhara
      182 SNEEZE , pahlavi persian (middle persian) : shnoshag , in some local rural areas in iran : eڑnuse , in khansar area of iran : shneezeh
      183 TIME , persian : zamaan , pahlavi persian : zamaan , armenian : (žamanak) , from PIE : „dimon” , also persian : dam , sanskrit : samaya …(so zamaan is not taken from arabic language, but vice versa)…old english : tima …((Old High German: zīmo , Middle High German: zīme , Alemannic German Zimen, Zīmmän (“time, time of the year, opportune time, opportunity”)…this part from wiktionary about etymology of „time” ))
      184 GLASS (glass of tea or wine for example) , persian : estekan , this estekan , at first was an old persian word doostagani (meaning big glass of wine that friends drink together from the same glass, doost means friend), then around 16th century through turkish language this persian word goes to russia and becomes stakan and again comes back to iran, and now people believe that is a russian word .. if you google استکان دوستگاني you find sources about this.
      185 , LAMB , persian : barreh , belarusian : baranina , russian : baranina , ukrainian : baranyna
      186 TRESS or HAIR , persian : gees , pahlavi persian : gees , Sanskrit: केश (sa) m (kéśa) , Marathi (a state in india) : kes केस , belarusian : casa , russian : casa or cosa , ukrainian : casa, bulgarian : kosa , macedonian : kosa
      187 , HEALTH , avestan persian : drvat , bulgarian : zdrave , czech : zdravi , polish : zdrowotny , russian : zdorov’ye , bosnian : zdravlje , pahlavi persian : drod , drustih …today’s persian „dorood ” for greeting actually comes from pahlavi persian drod (health) and that too comes from avestan drvat meaning health…and in russian dorood for greeting is zdorovo ( also comes from the word health)
      186 SHEPHERD , persian : choopan or shaban , pahlavi persian : shuban , ukrainian : chaban , russian : chaban (in some literature) ,of course real equivalent for shepherd in russian is „pastukh” …but some other slavic countries : çoban or čobanin , but seems they got it through turkish which sure got it from persian originally
      189 CORPSE , BODY , avestan persian : kehrp , tanu , pahlavi persian : kirb , tan , german : Körper , irish : corp , italian : corpo , latin : corpus , spanish : cuerpo , persian : tan
      190 NOTHING , pahlavi persian : not any = eech , persian : heech , albanian : hiç (heech) , avestan persian : naêdâ = not at all, neither , spanish : nada
      191 HUNDRED , persian : sad , pahlavi persian : sad , avestan persian : satem , irish : céad , romanian : suta , russian : sto , bosnian : sto , czech :sto , sanskrit : zata , macedonian : sto
      192 VOICE , avestan persian : vac = speak , say , also = ‚voice’ — , also vacah = word , (today’s persian : vazheh or vazhah = word)…”from PIE root *wekw- „give vocal utterance, speak” ( Sanskrit vakti „speaks, says,” vacas- „word;”) …latin : vox, voc = voice…vocal and vocabulary have also common roots with these
      193 PILE (heap) , italian : pelo = hair, fur , coat , pile , proto-indo-european : pilo = hair , latin : pilus = hair , pileus = felt cap , greek : pilus = felt , persian : pileh (peeleh) = cocoon , persian : pashm-o-pilee = wool and hair , spanish : pelo = hair , english : pillage (plunder) is also from the same root as Latin pilare „to strip of hair” …source partially from : etymologicaldictionary-persian-english.pdf ali nourai
      194 NOSE , sabzevari persian : nos , czech : nos , old english : nosu , polish : nos , romanian : nas , russian : nos , sanskrit : nasa , italian : naso , german : nase , swedish : näsa , urdu : nāk , gujarati : nak , proto-indo-european : néh₂s- , nh₂es- , some of these languages use nose as a word for „TIP of something like a pencil tip or BEAK” , in persian the word for TIP and BEAK is nok…notice that in urdu and gujarati word for nose is nak …also even in some languages word for beak is nos or nokka , like polish nos or finnish nokka (though finnish not inbdoeuropean)
      195 THIRST , avestan persian : tarshna , hindi : Tr̥ṣṇā , sanskrit : tRSNA , danish : tørst , pahlavi persian : tishn , persian teshnegi , …and all these have common root with avestan word tarshu- meaning dry , or PIE ters = dry , modern english terse also is from the same root…also latin terra= dry land , english terrain…partially from „online etymology dictionary”
      196 TAPE and TAPESTRY and TAFFETA , from latin : tapete = carpet and that from persian : taafte or tabide = twisted or woven ..bosnian : tapeti , romanian : tapet ….source partially from (tapestry online etymology dictionary)
      197 TEPID , from Latin tepidus „lukewarm,” from tepere „be warm,” from PIE root *tep- „warm” ( Sanskrit tapati „makes warm, heats, burns,” tapah „heat;” … Avestan tafnush „fever”)…persian tapesh = heat , taab = heat , tab= fever , taabe = frying pan…pahlavi persian for taabe is taapak
      198 NEXT (near,like next to you) , persian : nazd , dutch : naast , danish : næste , icelandic : næsta , avestan persian : nazda , swedish : nästa , norwegian : neste , …source partially from „Avestan English Cognates.”
      199 TERRIBLE , TERRIFIC , TERROR , TREMBLE , from PIE : tres = to tremble , avestan persian : tras = fear , tarshta = frightened , serbian : strašan = terrific , bosnian : strašan = terrific , latin : terer = to frighten , french : terreur = terror , persian : tars = fear , persian : coward = tarsu , russian : coward = trus , Sanskrit : trasati = „trembles , slovak : triasť sa = tremble
      200 UTERUS , avestan persian : udara = abdomen , Sanskrit udaram „belly” , Latin uterus = „womb, belly” , from PIE root *udero- „abdomen, womb, stomach” , Lithuanian vederas = „sausage, intestines, stomach, lower abdomen,”
      201 VOMIT , pahlavi persian : vamitan = vomit (from mackenzie concise pahlavi dictionary) and „An Etymological Dictionary of Persian, English and other Indo-European Languages” …interesting !!…. , PIE : wem = vomit , avestan persian : vam = vomit , latin : vomere = to vomit , french : vomir , italian : vomitare
      202 BEAR ( carry ) , persian : baar = load , bordan = to carry , albanian : barrë = load , armenian : berr = load , gujarati : bhāra= load , hindi : bhāra= load , from PIE *bher- „to bear, to carry, to take” ( Sanskrit bharati „carries;” Avestan baraiti „carries;” Old Persian barantiy „they carry;” Armenian berem „I carry;” ) , Russian brat’ „to take” , danish : bære , icelandic : bera
      203 BARN , persian : anbaar , ambaar , ancient persian : hambara , pahlavi persian : hambaar , bulgarian : hambar , romanian : hambar , russian : ambár , bosnian : ambar , serbian : ambar
      204 PLAY ( fun ,game ,recreation) , persian : bazi , pahlavi persian : wazig (v.) wazidan; (instrument) sriidan, (flute) pazd-. , neapolitan ( southern italy) : pazzià , greek : paízo̱ (v)(play, frolic, fool around, game, trifle, )…notice the similarity of pahlavi persian „pazd-.” and neapolitan „pazzià” and greek „paízo̱”…also persian „bazi ” the letters b and p are always close to eash other in all languages
      205 SALTY , persian : (šur) , prussian : SÛRS (aj) Sûris + sûrus salty, salt (salty) , Lithuanian: sūrus m, sūri f , armenian : sur ( acute, sharp, keen, bitter, exquisite, salty) , pahlavi persian : sōr
      206 HEAT, from PIE ghworm („warm”); old english: wearm; persian: garma ; old prussian: gorme; latvian: garme; armenian: jerm; proto-slavic: ger …(this word #206 was suggested by freesogdian username on youtube)
      207 HEAD, persian: dari and tajik version: KALLA; iranian version: KALLEH; old high german; calua; latin: calva („skull”); bulgarian: glava; serbian: glava; sloven.: glâva, czech, slovac; hlava; polish: głowa, russian, ukrain.; golova; lithuanian: galvà, latvian: galva, old prussian: gallū ….(this word #207 was suggested by freesogdian username on youtube)
      208 DADDY (Father), from PIE: tet, tat; hittite: luwian: tati(ja), tati(a), lykian: tedi; old indian: tata; persian: tajik version: DADA; old greek: tata; russian: tyatya; bolg.: tato; serbo-croatian: tata; slovenic: táta; czech: táta; slovac: tаtа; polish, upper sorbian, lower sorbian: tаtа; lithuanian: tetis; latvian: tete; old prussian: thetis (” grandfather”); old english: dad; old frisian: ded; old norse: dad; old high german: tat; german; tat….(this word #208 was suggested by freesogdian username on youtube)
      209 „BULLRUSH (plant) or MILLET or BULRUSH , german: hirse; old anglo-saxon: hersija; kurdish: herzin; talish: arzyn, persian: ARZAN…”…suggested by username freesogdian
      210 HOLE , khansari persian (isfahan state) : hola , for source google : میگویند ((hola در زبان خوانساری به سوراخ (( هل , icelandic : hola , lithuanian : ola , Proto-Germanic : hulą , dutch : hol , danish : hul
      211 DOG , avestan persian : spā or spaka , khansari persian : espa , eshtehardi persian : espa , russian : sobáka , pashto : spəy , old persian : saka ( source page 131 pdf of رﻳﺸﻪ. ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ واژه. ﻫﺎﻳﻲ از ﮔﻮﻳﺶ ﺑﺨﺘﻴﺎري ) , slovak : suka = female dog , russian : suka (bitch, female dog as insult) , polish : suka= female dog , pahlavi persian : sag , persian : sag
      212 EAR , persian : goush , avestan persian : ushi , czech: ucho , polish: ucho , latvian: auss , gothic : áusō , ancient greek : oũs , old prussian : auss , albanian : vesh…source : Indo-European vocabulary…From Wikipedia, … & wiktionary

      Some words that still not sure of their connection , but strongly there is a chance of connection :
      PERISH , persian : parish (depressed, shooed away and scattered) , CHAMBER , persian : chambareh , FASCINATE , latin: fascinum (casting spell), persian : afsoon (charm, spell, bewitchment)
      if you google for „avesta cognates” (there is a website with a chart of 75 avestan words similar to English words), or „Dictionary of most common avesta words” , interestingly you will find that those avestan words are too similar to today’s English words , like these avestan words : year (yare) ,arm (arema), you (yuzh), he (he) ,we (vae) ,fresh (frasha) , win (van) , three (thri) , gape (gapa) ,path (pathan) , now ( nû), not (nôit) ..and many more….these similarities are mind-boggling , specially considering the distance between Iran and England…of course other languages like Latvian and lithuanian have a lot of similar words with avestan and sanskrit languages too.
      My resources : Google translate , Wiktionary (translations part of every word in wiktionary has translation of each word almost in all languages), … Mackenzie concise pahlavi dictionary … „An Etymological Dictionary of Persian, English and other Indo-European Languages”… „Online Etymology Dictionary”…also many other sources…,also i have discovered many of these words connections by myself…

      Proszę, jak ładnie i składnie można mówić o historii lingwistyki i o germanskiej manipulacji itp!
      I to mówią naukowcy z Uniwersytetu Stanford w USA a nie jacyś tam Słowianie…

      The Promise of Historical Linguistics and the Conundrum of Indo-European Origins – Martin W. Lewis

      • Uwaga!
        Od ok, 49min ten pan sprzedaję ultra wersję allo-allo, że Frankowie, różni Goci, Vandale itp. to były germańskie plemiona nomadów, że w większości lub wszyscy porzucili te swoje terytoria i poszli sobie do Rzymu itp. Potem skądś tam przyszli Słowianie i z jakiegoś powodu szybko się rozmnożyli… Potem znów Germanie zaczęli się szybko rozmnażać i zaczęli się przemieszczać na wschód… pokojowo, no bo nie zabijali tych Słowian, bo byli bardziej cywilizowani itd… Potem po 2WŚ, Polska znów dostała te „germańskie” ziemie na powrót…

        Ten pan mówi wiele mądrych rzeczy, niemniej jednak z jednej strony przyznaje wiele razy, że nauka może się mylić, zwłaszcza jak wszystko upraszcza, ale z drugiej strony on sam to samo robi… Coś on o Germanach w ogóle, jak i germanizacji słowiańskich ziem nie doczytał…

      David Anthony, Early Indo-European migrations, economies, and phylogenies

      Odniesienie do poprzedniej krytyki anatolijskiej ojczyzny PIE.
      Generalnie zniszczenie tego samego z punktu widzenia archeologii.
      Kultura trypolska określona jako pre-słowiańska i wchłonęła ona kulturę yamna, która miała pierwsze wozy!
      Jest pokazane drzewo języków z j. germańskim zaznaczonym jako kłopotliwy,bo nie wiadomo dokładnie kiedy i jak powstał, więc są podane2 możliwości!

        Kristian Kristiansen, The Bronze Age expansion of Indo-European languages

        15min mapa kultura jamowa/Yamnaya około tzw. 3000r pne i wcześniej, pierwsze wozy. Proszę zobaczyć podobieństwa w ułożeniu zmarłego – zgięte kolana, widoczne w pochówkach ludzi z kultury jamowej i Tocharów R1a1a!
        Tu jest przykład o 1000 lat innego oficjalnego datowania z tzw. 2008r ne.
        Genetic study of Yamna culture + Scythian DNA officially launched
        Wielu R1a1a bardzo denerwuje, dlatego że jest go pełno wszędzie na stepie od baaardzo dawna… hehehe,
        Ancient Ukraine: The Bronze Age
        (Mapa: Bronocice, Prypeć, Bałkany, step na północ od Morza Czarnego.)
        Egalitarian Pastoral Society Versus Nomadic Warriors? An Attempt to Reconstruct the Social Structure of the Yamnaya and Catacomb cultures E. Kaiser (Berlin, Germany)

        In the 20th century the society of the Yamnaya culture-historical entity, in particular, was oſt en assumed to have involved mounted warriors who attacked populations in the Balkans and Carpathian Basin. This claim has not been contradicted due to lack of evidence in graves. The following article contrasts the features of the burials of the Yamnaya Culture with those of the Catacomb Culture as found in the northern Pontic area, in order to achieve a basis for the social interpretation of the members of both cultures. It can be shown that burials of the Yamnaya Culture diff er through the complexity in grave construction (if the grave consists of two parts, its dimensions, the existence of a barrow above the grave etc.). The rather constant regime in Yamnaya graves seems to represent the burials of members of an egalitarian society, whereas the number and variability of grave inventories increases during the Catacomb Culture, especially in the Ingul Culture. Yet, evidence of mounted warriors in both culture-historical entities is still lacking.(…)
        Cudgel Culture Volume 55 Number 2, March/April 2002
        by Mark Rose

        Third-millennium B.C. cudgel has links to hymns written 1,000 years later. (Pavel Kuznetsov)

        Discovery of a unique copper cudgel at Kutuluk, a group of burial mounds near the central Russian city of Samara, proves a long-suspected link between the Yamnaya people of the steppe and the tribes that migrated to India in the second millennium B.C. The Yamnaya culture, named for its characteristic burials in rectangular pits (yama is Russian for pit) beneath kurgans or mounds, is found throughout the steppe north of the Caspian and Black seas and west of the Ural River.

        Pavel Kuznetsov of the Institute of History and Archaeology of Povolzhye made the discovery while excavating Kurgan 4 at Kutuluk. The kurgan, about 69 feet in diameter, has been radiocarbon dated to 2500-2300 B.C. Its main burial held the skeleton of a man, estimated to have been 35 to 40 years old and about five feet, eight inches tall.

        Resting on the skeleton’s bent left elbow was a 25-inch-long copper object. Its blade is diamond-shaped in cross-section, with sharp edges, but the end is not pointed. Traces indicate that the five-inch-long handle was wrapped, probably with a quarter-inch-wide leather strap.

        Kuznetsov knew of no similar objects from Bronze Age Eurasian steppe cultures, but found a striking parallel in the Rig-Veda, an ancient Indian collection of hymns to the gods compiled ca. 1500-1200 B.C. in the Punjab region of India and Pakistan. It mentions repeatedly the vajra the weapon of Indra, one of the most important deities:

        Oh, Indra, getting your support
        Let us take cudgels,
        And will gain a victory over all the rivals

        According to the Rig-Veda, the vajra was four sided and had a cow-skin strap. It was called „golden vajra” and „glistening vajra.” The Kutuluk artifact is the only object ever found corresponding to the vajra, a metal weapon used to deliver heavy blows. Even the leather wrapping of the handle is similar. It is likely, Kuznetsov concludes, that the Kutuluk artifact was a ritual weapon like the legendary vajra.

        The Kutuluk grave is substantially older than the Rig-Veda, and probably represents a society that was ancestral to the people who compiled the hymns. Archaeologists have long thought that the Yamnaya people spoke an early Indo-European language and that their offshoots migrated to India and elsewhere (see „Tracking the Tarim Mummies,” March/April 2001). Identification of the Kutuluk cudgel as the vajra of the Rig-Veda confirms that belief.
        © 2002 by the Archaeological Institute of America

        26min nowa mapa wpływów celtyckich w Europie, także na podstawie badań podobieństw zębów.
        Celtowie przyszli z półwyspu Iberyjskiego


        There is no historical record of German Slavs or Polish Slavs being exterminated during last 1000 years.
        On the contrary many Lech tribes still existed until 19th century Poland and Germany. A few Lech tribes still exist in 21st century Germany (e.g. Sorbs) with their tribal customs intact. One would therefore expect there to be a larger minority of R1a in Germany than is actually the case.

        By contrast to popular beliefs, non-Slavic Sweden and Norway do have higher than expected frequencies of R1a (18% and 24% respectively). In Britain, the distribution of R1a corresponds closely to the areas of Viking influence. The same Y haplogroup means that Vikings are parentally related to (Lech) Ludzie where the concentration of R1a is highest in Europe. (…)


        Oto jak ktoś perfidny manipuluje faktami…

        Germanie rozpoczęli podbój ziem pogańskich plemion połabskich w VIII wieku naszej ery. Granica zamieszkania Słowian opierała się o utworzony w roku 805 przez Karola Wielkiego Limes Sorabicus[1], a później Limes Saxoniae. Germanie starali się narzucić im chrześcijaństwo oraz własną kulturę. Trwające kilkaset lat walki ze Słowianami połabskimi zgrupowanymi w związkach plemiennych Wieletów, związku obodrzyckiego – Obodrzyczan oraz Serbołużyczan doprowadziły do upadku struktur państwowych Słowian zamieszkujących na terenach dzisiejszych Niemiec Wschodnich i włączenie ich ziem w struktury państwa niemieckiego.

        Historię podporządkowywania sobie przez Niemców Słowian połabskich opisywali na bieżąco mnisi niemieccy na łamach swoich kronik: Widukind z Korbei w „Dziejach Sasów”, biskup merseburski Thietmar z Merseburga w tzw. „Kronice Thietmara”, kanonik Adam z Bremy autor „Dziejów Kościoła Hammenburskiego” oraz Helmold w „Kronice Słowian”. Wszyscy oni dawali świadectwo prześladowania Słowian.

        Helmold pisał: „Guncelin, rządca zamku, mąż dzielny i sługa księcia (Henryka Lwa), polecił swoim, żeby skoro tylko spostrzegą kogokolwiek ze Słowian idących bocznymi drogami bez usprawiedliwionej przyczyny, żeby natychmiast takich chwytali i natychmiast wieszali”[2].

        Prześladowania Słowian połabskich ze strony Germanów miały podłoże tak wyznaniowe, jak i ekonomiczne. Wykorzystywali oni wiarę chrześcijańską jako pretekst do zaborów ziem słowiańskich. Według średniowiecznych pojęć pogańskie ziemie należały do tego, kto je orężnie zdobył, szerząc wiarę, a więc wypełniając obowiązek krucjatowy. Gdy dokonano podboju chrześcijańscy władcy wprowadzali wysokie podatki. Były one dla Słowian tak dotkliwe, że masowo odwracali się od narzuconej wiary. W roku 1011 Helmold pisał:

        „Książę (Bernard Saski) tak przez swoją chciwość gnębił naród Winulów, że zmusił ich z konieczności do bałwochwalstwa powrócić. W rzeczy samej w owym czasie opanowali ziemię Słowian margrabia Teodoryk i książę Bernard, pierwszy mianowicie zagarnął wschodnią, drugi zachodnią część kraju, a nierozsądek obu przymusił Słowian do odstępstwa”[2].

        W roku 1164 książę wagryjski Przybysław żalił się na władców Saskich: „Wiadomo wszystkim Wam, jakie nieszczęścia i ciemiężenia dotknęły nasz lud wskutek gwałtów i przemocy księcia, który ciężar ich dał nam uczuć: zabrał nam dziedzictwo ojców naszych i wszędzie w nim osadził przybyszów, jak Flamandczyków, Holendrów, Sasów, Westfalów i inne ludy rozliczne. Tej krzywdy ojciec mój aż do śmierci swej dochodził, za to mój brat w wiecznym więzieniu zamknięty”[2].

        Osobny artykuł: Krucjaty północne.

        Ostateczny podbój Słowian Zachodnich umożliwiły zbrojne wyprawy wojenne organizowane w XII wieku przez feudałów niemieckich. Wyprawa z 1147 miała nawet sankcję ze strony papieża Eugeniusza III i przeszła do historii jako krucjata połabska, która zapoczątkowała serię tzw. krucjat północnych. Wymierzone przeciwko pogańskim plemionom doprowadziły ostatecznie do wchłonięcia tych terenów przez Niemcy, ale proces germanizacji ludności słowiańskiej trwać miał jeszcze przez setki lat.

        Kultura, język i obyczaje tych słowiańskich ludów przetrwały w ramach państwa niemieckiego dość długo, ale do dzisiaj szczątkowo przetrwały jedynie kultura i język Serbołużyczan zamieszkujących od VI w. n.e. pomiędzy rzekami Bóbr, Kwisa i Odra na wschodzie, a rzekami Soławą (niem. Saale) i Łabą na zachodzie. Duński Biskup Absalon niszczy idola słowiańskiego boga Świętowit w Arkonie – obraz Laurits Tuxen

        Nie przetrwała natomiast kultura Drzewian – słowiańskiego plemienia połabskiego należącego do związku obodrzyckiego, którzy osiedlili się na obszarze między Łabą i późniejszymi miastami Lüneburg i Uelzen w VII wieku n.e. Chociaż w 1751 anonimowy podróżnik zauważył, że o „Wendach” miejscowa ludność niemiecka mówiła z pogardą i wstrętem, a także twierdziła, że ich język już całkowicie wymarł, to ostatni Drzewianie przetrwali aż do XVIII wieku[3]. Etnografowie niemieccy podjęli badania nad Drzewianami, kiedy słowiański charakter tego ludu zaczynał się już zatracać. (…)


        G. F. Korobkova (†), M. B. Rysin (St.-Petersburg, Russia), O. G. Shaposhnikova (†)
        Issues in Early Yamnaya Cultural Community Studies in the Light of Research on Mikhailovka Settlement

        The Urals and Western Siberia in the Bronze and Iron Ages
        By Ludmila Koryakova, Andrej Epimakhov
        „Palaeogenetic Studies of economic innovations and social mobility in the Eurasian steppes from 3500-300 BC, Palaeogenetics section”


        Proto Balto Slavic languages according to the Kurgen theory are suppose to come from Corded ware culture Indo Iranian languages are suppose to come from Sinshtaand Abashevo culture. Both Sinshta– Abashevo and corded ware descend from Yamna culture. So Balto Slavic and Indo Iranien languages trace back to the same culture that existed in Russia 5,000-6,000ybp. Also we have 4 Y DNA samples from Corded ware culture two 4,800 year old ones from Poland one had either I or J(probably I2a1b), another had G(probably G2a), then two from central Germany they where 4,600 years old both had R1a1a.

        The oldest Indo Iranien Y DNA discovered is in west China the tarum mummies they are from the time of Sinshta culture from 7 y dna samples all had R1a1a. From 3,800 year old Indo Iranian y DNA in near by south Siberia out of three Y DNA samples two had R1a1a and one had Siberia C. Out of 17 total ancient y DNA from Indo Iranien cultures in asia and eastern Europe 16 had R1a1a one had Siberia C. I have a thread where i explain all ancient Indo Iranian DNA ever discovered.

        So both early Indo Iranian and early Batlo Slavic cultures had mainly R1a1a. That is exactly what was excepted because R1a1a dominates Indo Iranian and Balto Slavaic speaking people today and so many people have connected it to the spread of Yamna culture descendants and Indo Iranian and Balto Slavic languages. Also Indo Iranian R1a and Balto Slavic R1a are brothers. Indo Iranian is R1a1a1b2 Balto Slavic is R1a1a1b1. The ancient remains where not tested for those subclades so all we know for sure is they went as far down in the R1a tree as R1a1a.

        So Indo Iranian and Balto Slavic both descend from Yamna culture and Y DNA R1a1a1b. To me this must mean they are related in language too just since they have been separated for about 6,000 years it is hard for linguistics to find how they are related. German scientist recently(june 2013) got 6 Y DNA samples from Yamna culture kurgens they are 6,000-5,000 years old. I am totally excepting R1a1a1b if they test it that far.(…)

      • Ciekawa dyskusja i wytłumaczenie germańskości, jako mieszanki genowej!!!

        18-01-2012, 15:42 #1 Enkidu
        Yamna culture DNA
        I was just wondering if anybody on this forum has any knowledge of the DNA of the Yamna culture, specifically the extraction of ancient DNA from burial mounds. In a broader context any of the Steppe Kurgan cultures would be interesting to know about.

        Since the Yamna culture and/or related Steppe cultures are almost certainly the people who spoke Proto-Indo-European I was wondering what is known about them genetically.

        18-01-2012, 16:04 #2 dubhthach Moderator
        Of the top of my head I haven’t kept up a huge amount regarding ancient-DNA and the steppes. Most of the current data is pointing towards Haplogroup R1a as connected. I know the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (Germany) have a project that is examing ancient DNA (aDNA) from the region. See:

        One of the Kurgan’s excavated did have viable aDNA which gave a result of Y-Haplogroup R1a1. I believe it’s date to 1800-1400BC see list of ancient DNA results here:

        Haplogroup R* probably fist arose in Central Asia about 25k years ago. It’s child haplogroups R1a and R1b have high correalation with Indo-European speaking populations.

        Tarim basin mummies which are linked to the Tocharians (IE branch) have had a number come back as R1a1a (Males)

        18-01-2012, 17:12 #4 dubhthach Moderator
        I should add here’s a very usefull Phylogenetic tree of Haplogroup R1a based off current know distrubiton of it’s subclades. I got it from the R1a discussion group on DNA-Forums. (…)
        Obviously not fully on topic but it does show that R1a for example has high incidence in groups that speak Satem languages. Namely: Indic, Iranic, Salvic, Baltic

        The spread into Germanic populations appears to be due to mix of an early migration into Scandinavia (which is one reason R1a in Ireland is connected to Vikings) and that Germany forms boundary area between highest areas of R1a and R1b frequency. As a result Germans have high level of both R1a and R1b. Italic/Celtic speaking populations in general have high levels of R1b. Obviously they and Germanic are Centum languages.

        19-01-2012, 13:08 #12 dubhthach Moderator
        Well Haplogroup N is generally associated with Finno-Ugric speakers. For example it reaches a frequency of 58% in Finland, though interesting enough it’s only 1% of men in Hungary! (This could be tied to massive depopulation in Hungary during Mongol and later Ottoman invasions)
        Another Siberian specific haplogroup is Q. Q is the brother of R* (paragroup containg R1a,R1b and R2), it’s also the most common haplogroup among Native Americans. If Finno-Uralic / siberian people had an affect on the „Indo-Iranians” then perhaps we would see elevated levels in them. On a quick search unfortantley I can only find data specific to Iran. None from Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, India. (Need to do some digging).

        Anyways on Iran sample I see 2.5% Haplogroup N and 4% Haplogroup Q. Now the Q sample could be due to influences coming in from Siberia/Central Asia in middle ages (Turks, Mongols etc.). As a comparison the Armenians have 0.5% Haplogroup N.


        08-12-2013, 07:36 AM #1 Fire Haired Senior Member

        Yamna culture source of Indo Iranian and Balto Slavic languages and their R1a

        Indo European culture started around Russia, Ukriane, and the northern middle east from 6,000-8,000ybp. Yamna culture which started 5,600ybp probably was not the first Indo Europeans but they were very early Indo Europeans.

        Yamna culture gave birth to Corded ware culture about 5,000ybp which is included in that map it also coexisted with Corded ware. Corded ware culture was able to conquer most of eastern and central Europe and southern Scandinavia. Yamna culture also gave birth to Sinshta Abashevo cultures which started around 4,000-5,000ybp and made huge eastward migrations all over asia. According to the Kurgen theory Yamna is proto Indo European, Corded ware is proto Balto Slavic, and Sinshta Abashevo is proto Indo Iranian. Now that we have DNA we can see that the Indo Iranian speakers and Balto Slavic speakers are dominted by Y DNA R1a.

        They are also brothers in the R1a family tree. Proto Balto Slavic is R1a1a1b1 Z283 proto Indo Iranian is R1a1a1b2 Z93. Both these haplogroups have very young age estimates dating to the time Yamna cultures decedents spread in Europe and asia. It all connects there is also a Scandinavian branch in the Balto Slavic family it is R1a1a1b1a3 not a surprise it is also mainly in southern Scandinavia were Corded ware culture existed.

        We also have 4,800 and 4,600 year old Y DNA from Corded ware culture and very early Indo Iranians in west china known as tarium mummies their 4,000 years old and 3,800-3,400 year old Y DNA samples from Adronovo culture. Two 4,800 year old Y DNA in south west Poland from Corded ware one had G probably G2a and the other had I or J probably I2a1b. The 4,600 year old ones in central Germany both had at least R1a1a possibly deeper subclades. 7 Y DNA samples in west China from the tarium mummies all dating around 4,000 years old all had at least R1a1a. from three 3,800-3,400 year old Y DNA samples from Adrnovo culture in south Siberia one had Siberian C and two had R1a1a i but their subclade in a predictor it said they were at least Indo European R1a1a1 M417 and ex the major Slavic and Balto Slavic branches.

        These results are not surprises at all in my opinon their prove Corded ware culture was proto Balto Slavic speaking and brought R1a1a1b1 to eastern Europe. Abashevo sinshta and all those cultures decended from Yamna culture in central asia were proto Indo iranian speaking and brought R1a1a1b2 to asia. Then what u have to do is connect them to their common ancestor Yamna culture which now we know almost without a doubt had Indo Iranian and Balto Slavic’s father R1a1a1b and was dominated by it. This also probably means Balto Slavic and Indo Iranian languages form their own branch of Indo European languages and Yamna culture spoke proto Indo Iranian Balto Slavic. Well maybe not all of Ymana culture since it was so big maybe just northern Yamna culture did while southern could have spoken proto Germanic Italo Celtic and had R1b L23 and maybe Ymana culture is were all Indo European languages spread from which makes it their source and that means they originally spoke proto Indo European.

        Here is a map of how Indo European R1a1a1 M417 probably migrated based on this information and the Kurgen theory which started in the 1950’s. It shows how smart those Archaeologist were that they were able to figure this out all the way back in the 1950’s before internet and alot of high tech stuff to help them. Now DNA has pretty much proven them correct.


    Although the number of lexical items in Tocharian that are clear reflexes of the original PIE lexicon is not great, there are some obvious ones. The following are some examples:

    A tre, B trai ‚three’: *trei-
    A stwar, 31 B stwer ‚four’: *kwetwor-
    A päñ, 32 B pis ‚five’: *penkwe
    A okät, B okt ‚eight’: *okto
    AB ñu ‚nine’: *newn
    A känt, B kante ‚100’: *kmtom
    AB tu ‚thou’: *tu-
    A säm, 33 B sana ‚woman’: *gwena
    A pacar, B pacer ‚father’: *pater
    A macar, B macer ‚mother’: *mater-
    A pracar, B procer ‚brother’: *bhrater-
    A ckacar, B tkacer ‚daughter’: *dhughater-
    A ak, B ek ‚eye’: *okw-
    A wak, B wek ‚voice’: *wekw-/ *wokw-
    A ko, B keu ‚ox, cow’: *gwou-
    A yuk, B yakwe ‚horse’: *ekwos
    AB ku ‚dog’: *kwon-
    A pält, B pilta ‚leaf’: *bhel-
    A kukäl, B kokale ‚wagon, chariot’: *kwel-/ *kwol-
    A por, B puwar ‚fire’: *pur-
    A rtär, B ratre ‚red’: *reudh-
    AB käm- ‚come’: *gwem-
    AB päk- ‚cook, ripen’: *pekw-/ *pokw-34

    However, the etymologies of a large percentage of the lexicon are uncertain. This is not surprising when we consider the late date of the extant documents and the relative isolation of Tocharian from other IE languages. Winter summarizes the problem of coming up with reliable etymologies for many Tocharian words: „There is first a hard core of good and generally accepted etymologies. They generally constitute material that is well known from a great many Indo-European languages…. Apart from this core vocabulary, there is a vast array of insufficiently understood material.” 35 As far as loan words are concerned, the lexicon does show the influence of other IE languages, chiefly Sanskrit and Iranian (especially religious and technical terms – it should be noted that these are predominantly late loans, the result of Buddhist missionary activity in the area), and to a lesser degree, some non-IE languages, including Tibetan, Chinese, and Uighur. 36 As an example of the borrowing process possibly working the other way, Winter even proposes that the Turkic word for ‚sun, day,’ kün, may be derived from the Tocharian word kom (A), kaum (B). 37

    As noted above, the nature of the Tocharian documents that we have currently available to us is a source of problems in the area of syntax. This is also true of our attempts to reconstruct the Tocharian lexicon. One of the major difficulties is that the semantic domains are very limited: „Our texts, religious, philosophical, didactic in nature fail to give us a good cross-section of the core vocabulary of the Tocharian language…. What we have at our disoposal are essentially vocabulary items that occurred in Buddhist writings of the day.” 38


    What impact did the Tocharian documents have upon IE studies? Obviously, the discovery of a hitherto unknown IE language promised to give linguists access to valuable new information about the whole language family. However, much of the information that was gleaned from analysis of the language ended up having a „negative” effect, in that the data upset a number of neat and convenient isoglosses that linguists studying IE languages had come up with. For example, prior to the discovery of Tocharian, the occurrence of -r as a marker of the mediopassive form of the verb was only substantiated in the Celtic and Italic branches of the IE language family. The fact that these two groups are relatively geographically close to each other helped to explain how this could have come about. However, Tocharian, lying far to the east, also has this feature. 66

    An even more significant implication of the discovery of Tocharian was the effect it had on the centum-satem division that linguists had devised by observing the reflexes of the PIE velars. Before the evidence of Tocharian came to light, the IE languages could be neatly divided into two groups: those in the west which had velar reflexes (centum languages) and those in the east which had sibilant reflexes (satem languages). However, Tocharian threw that distinction out since, although it lay further to the east than any other IE language, it was centum, the word for 100 being känt in A and kante in B. 67 ‚Thus, the overall impact of Tocharian has been essentially negative in that it has provided evidence against hypotheses concerning Proto-Indo-European made before its discovery.” 68 Lane points out that this has resulted in the need for „our ‚late 19th century’ conception of the IE parent language… to be radically changed in several aspects, and nowhere more radically than in the instance of the verb. For our conception of the verbal categories has been based entirely upon agreements between Greek and Indic.” 69

    Apart from these disruptive effects that the discovery of Tocharian had on previous IE theories, what have we learned from it that has contributed to a better understanding of the IE language family and the place that Tocharian occupies in that family? We have noted above a number of features in Tocharian which are reflexes of PIE. We observe in Tocharian the preservation of aspects of the PIE diphthong system, ablaut system, grammatical gender system, number categories, case system, and the distinction between active and mediopassive in the verb system. In addition, there is a lexical core of words which can be easily traced back to PIE. At the same time, we note a significantly diminished system of stops, extensive palatalization, the secondary case system, and lexical borrowings from other language families, all of which suggest to one degree or other the influence of non-IE languages, especially Turkic and possibly Finno-Ugric languages, as noted above. In general, therefore, the Tocharian evidence, due to the rather late date of the extant documents, its geographic isolation from other IE languages, and the influence of non-IE languages, has not been as helpful in reconstructing PIE as, for instance Sanskrit, Greek, or Hittite have been. However, we can learn from Tocharian about the effect that a long migration and contacts with members of other language families can have on an IE language and, as Winter says, „below the rather forbidding surface of our Tocharian data there are some real treasures to be found.” 70

    A czy języki germańskie, (zwłaszcza j. gocki) pomogły w rekonstrukcji PIE, tak samo jak sanskryt, greka i Hetycki? A czy język słowiański pomógł? (Skoro grecki a nie jego liczne dialekty, to i słowiański a nie jego dialekty!)

    A jak miały pomóc, skoro na tym schemacie dotyczącym nazewnictwa wozu, wszystko jest źle opisane, bo języki słowiańskie tak jak i tocharski i sanskryt mają pełne zachowane nazewnictwo?!!
    I co, to też nie jest manipulacja? To co to jest, wiedza? Wątpię!

    I to nie jest tylko moje “widzimisię”, to logiczny samo nasuwający się wniosek, nic więcej.


    PIE – To stepowcy R1a, którzy przetrwali w Schronieniu Ukraińskim podczas ostatniego zlodowacenia, którzy łączyli się także z R1b, co dawało rude włosy.

    The European distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a has been suggested to have occurred as a result of receding glacial activity allowing males bearing the lineage from the present day territory of Ukraine to migrate and gradually populate central, northern, and western Europe.[5]

    Alternatively, it has been proposed that males from Haplogroup Hg P*(xR1a1) or R1b (Y-DNA) repopulated most of Europe shortly after the Last Glacial Maximum, related to population expansions out of the Franco-Cantabrian region.[6] The European distribution of Y-chromosome Haplogroup I and various associated subclades has also been explained as resulting from male post-glacial re-colonization of Europe from refuge in the Balkans, Iberia, and Eastern Europe.[7]
    Do ok. tzw. 2300r pne, tylko 5% tych ludzi w Szwecji, mogło trawić mleko krów!

    R1b1b2 i Ra1 ma Lactose tolerance mutation 13910 i wszyscy pochodzą od jednego człowieka sprzed 10.000 lat.

    Dorians – D’Arians? – D’Ariowie – jasnowłosi ludzie najczęściej spotykani byli w Sparcie!

    Ariel to nie jest semickie słowo, jak i SamAria.

    1500 tzw. pne królowie Mittani mieli nazwy jak z Rig Wedy. Stolica królestwa nazywała się Waśśukanni, jak w staro indyjskim vasu-khani – co się tłumaczy bogata kopalnia.

    27 min Gitians, podbili Sumer i osadzili tam swoją dynastię.

    Najwcześmiejsi Tocharowie ok tzw. 2000r pne byli R1a i nie byli rudzi jak późniejsi!

    Ujgurowie sa R1b-M37 w 20% i R1a w 30%! Atylla pochodził z tego plemienia!

    Wśród DNA pochówków arystokracji Xiongnu znajduje się R1a.
    Potomkowie Czyngis Chana mieli długie brody, rude włosy, zielone oczy i byli wysocy.

    Hitti R1b-Z2103, mają najwcześniej zanotowany język IE i przyszli z terenów Grecji a wcześniej ze wschodniej części stepu na północ od Morza Czarnego. Ich słonecznym bogiem nieba był był Sius…

    Faraonowie Amenhotep III, Akhenaten, Tutankgamun byli R1b ok. tzw. 1400r pne w Egipcie.
    Jasne włosy mumii z tego okresu!

    • Zobaczcie to jest o zasiedleniu Europy, przez haplogrupę „IVAN” I1a, I1b, I1c.
      Znalezione przy okazji poszukiwania danych o Glacial Ukrainian Refuge.

      Ukrainian LGM refuge
      The Ukrainian LGM refuge is one of the postulated LGM refuge areas, located around the Black Sea, where groups of humans sought shelter from the glacial climate around 13,000 years ago. From this and other LGM refuge areas a post-LGM recolonization of Europe and Central Asia is postulated.

      This area is hypothetically attractive due to the thermal conditions. During the LGM, the European climate was very dry. Northern rivers did not carry waters frozen in glaciers. Sea levels tended to decrease. The Black Sea may have substantially evaporated. The temperature on the bottom would have been 12C warmer than at the sea level.

      Haplogroup M17 or Hg R1a1, with an inferred age of ~15,000 years, is considered a marker to the people that originate from this glacial refuge. This gene is found at high frequency in Poland, Russia, Ukraine, the Czech and Slovak Republics, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, and is common throughout Central Asia, but is rare in East Asia and Western Europe. The microsatellite diversity of R1a1 is postulated to have been connected with population spread in the period subsequent to the LGM. The marker was involved in recent migrations by Indo-European speaking peoples from the steppes, bringing the gene to new frontiers and an ethnic distribution that add to the evidence that M17 is a diagnostic Indo-Iranian marker. To the northwest this same gene spread into Scandinavian territory and is diagnostic as a marker to Viking movements between 800 and 1300 AD. To the east this gene found its way as far as eastern Siberia, with considerable concentrations in Kamchatka and Chukotka, and it cant be ruled out the gene even entered into the Americas by this route.

      The current distribution of this M17 (Hg R1a1) marker is characterized by high concentrations of the gene over wide areas from Lapland to Ukraine and from Poland to Kazakhstan and Pakistan, with sharp drops on the fringes where gene barriers are met, like caused by natural borders or the advance of peoples originally expanding from other LGM refuges, like postulated in Spain and the Balkans. The exceptionally high frequencies of R1a1 in the Kyrgyz, Tajik/Khojant, and Ishkashim populations are likely to be due to genetic drift, while lower concentrations elsewhere are partly due to documented intrusions, for instance of Turkish origin. There are several frequency variations across Eurasia, including intrusions of M89 (Hg F, common in Korea and India), M170 (Hg I, especially Hg I1 (M253) and Hg I1c (M223), originating from northwestern Europe), and M172 (Hg J2, attributed to the spread of farming from the Near East). From northeast Asia came M130 (Hg C, common in Mongolia), while haplogroup R2 (M124) show a maximum in Central Asia.


      James Mallory, The problem of Tocharian origins
      Paper presented at the seminar „Tracing the Indo-Europeans: Origin and migration”, organized by Roots of Europe – Language, Culture, and Migrations, University of Copenhagen, 12-14 December 2012

      Najstarsze zapożyczenia językowe w tzw. proto-tocharskim są z staro-scytyjskiego (Old Sakan), jak tu się twierdzi irańskiego, a nie słowiańskiego i były zapożyczone przed dotarciem Tocharów do Basenu Tarim! Proto-scytyjski jest właściwie identyczny z proto-irańskim.

      29min archeologowie mają problem ze tocharskimi skorupami, bo…sądząc po ceramice Tocharowie przyszli z Chin, co jest nieprawdą!

      Pochówki Tocharów od ok tzw. 2000-1600 pne, wyglądają właściwie identycznie jak te z eurazjatyckiego stepu i nie można ich odróżnić od pochówków Scytyjskich! Ok. tzw. 6w ne Tocharawie wyglądali i ubierali się jak Sasanidzi z Iranu.

      Wszystko wskazuje na to, ze Tocharowie wywodzą się z kultur archeologicznych afanasiewskiej, która budowała drewniane okręgi obronne od ok tzw. 3500r pne i rozwinięty szamanizm.

      45 min Tocharscy mężczyźni byli w większości Y DNA R1a1a! Kobiety różnie, najczęściej MtDNA C4 z Syberii… No i oczywiście pojawił się problem… skąd ci wszyscy IndoEuropejczycy się wzięli… z Europy, czy Indii… hehehe…

      Możliwe, późniejsze związki z kulturą okuniewską.

      The Origin of the Indo-Iranians
      By Elena Efimovna Kuzʹmina

      Jest jednak jedno ale, a mianowicie obie te kultury nie uprawiały zbóż, tak jak Proto-Tocharowie.
      Łączy się ich z przyniesieniem rolnictwa (a także koła, konia i wozu) do Chin.

      Istnieją jeszcze podobieństwa do kultury Xiaohe z tego samego rejonu.

      Genetic studies
      Genetic analysis of the mummies showed that Xiaohe people were an admixture from populations originating from both the West and the East. The maternal lineages of the Xiaohe people originated from both the East and the West, whereas the paternal lineages all originated from the West.[8]
      Mitochondrial DNA analysis, which reveals the maternal ancestry, showed that the Xiaohe people carried both the East Eurasian haplogroup (C) and the West Eurasian haplogroups (H and K). The East Eurasian lineage C, which is the dominant haplogroup found in the remains, suggests that the east Eurasian component in the Xiaohe people originated from the Siberian populations, especially the southern or eastern Siberian populations. The mtDNA haplogroup H and K are common in Western Europe, suggesting that west Eurasian component of the maternal ancestry observed in the Xiaohe people might have close relationship with Western Europeans.

      The Y chromosomal DNA analysis, which reveals paternal lineage, showed only the West Eurasian haplogroup R1a1a in the male individuals.

      Pomijając traktowanie Scytów jako ludów mówiących po irańsku, dochodzę do takiego wniosku, że język satem (R1a) w pomieszaniu się z innymi językami/haplogrupami nie R1a, upraszcza się i daje kentum. To wg. mnie jest poparte genetyka i teorią fali rozchodzenia się języków IE.
      Ciekawa praca dotycząca zmian klimatycznych i rozwojowi kultury scytyjskiej z Syberii do Europy.
      Pytanie jakim językiem mówili Scyci na początku swej drogi z Syberii?

      Climate change and the expansion of the Scythian
      culture after 850 BC: a hypothesis

      • Indoeuropejskie mumie, konie, czary, tkaniny itd w Chinach i Centralnej Azji od ok tzw. 2000r pne i wcześniej.

        Riddle Of The Desert Mummies – Caucasian Taklamakan Mummies
        The Botai Culture is the archeological term for a culture (c. 3700-3100 BC) of ancient Kazakhstan whose representatives are identified either with Indo-Europeans or speakers of the proto-Turkic language.

        Mysterious Caucasian Mummies – Mummies Of The Takla Makan

        China’s Dessert Mummies : Documentary on the Taklamakan Mummies

        White Mummies in China


        NEW DISCOVERIES: : 24,000-year-old Siberian boy links Western Europeans to Native Americans
        The anthropological world was stunned when the recent genome study of the 24,000-year-old remains of a Siberian boy revealed that the child was both part-Western European and modern Native American.

        Horseback Riding and Bronze Age Pastoralism in the Eurasian Steppes

        Chariot burials are tombs in which the deceased was buried together with his chariot, usually including his (more rarely, her) horses and other possessions. An instance of a person being buried with their horse (without the chariot) is called horse burial.

        The earliest chariots known are from chariot burials of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture in modern Russia, clustering along the upper Tobol river, southeast of Magnitogorsk, from around 2,000 BC, containing spoke-wheeled chariots drawn by teams of two horses. This culture is at least partially derived from the earlier Yamna culture, where some wagon-burials are found, and is generally accepted as an early Proto-Indo-Iranian culture. The Krivoye Ozero chariot grave contained a horse skull, three pots, two bridle cheek pieces, and points of spears and arrows.[1] (…)

        In Europe, chariot burials are known from Iron Age (8th century BC) Salamis, Cyprus, Tomba Regolini Galassi in Etruria (7th century BC), Italy, and from Beilngries (7th century BC), Germany, as part of the Hallstatt C culture. It was also an Iron Age Celtic custom. A tomb from the 4th century BC was discovered in La Gorge-Meillet (Marne, France).[3]

        In addition to the Etruscan tomb in Italy, there are two chariot burials at the site of Sesto Calende, south of Lake Maggiore, of the Golasecca culture dating to the 7th and 6th century BC accompanied with weapons, ornaments and a large situla [4] while an earlier burial of the same culture, at Ca’ Morta – Como (c. 700 BC), included a four-wheeled wagon in the tomb.(…)

        Social Complexity in Prehistoric Eurasia: Monuments, Metals and Mobility
        edited by Bryan K. Hanks, Katheryn M. Linduff

        Early Riders: The Beginnings of Mounted Warfare in Asia and Europe
        By Robert Drews


        The burials of these charioteers belong to the beginning of the Late Bronze Age. We cansay that the emergence of chariots in Eastern Europe dates at latest from the second half of the twentieth century BCE and the chariot burial rite of Potapovo-Sintashta type continued to flourish until at least the beginning of the eighteenth century BCE. This chronologicalposition correlates well with the new Bronze Age chronology of Central Europe and Fore Asia (Bochkaryov 1992a & 1992b: 115; Chernykh et al. 2000; Trifonov 2001: 80; Anthony 1998; Hansel A. & B. 1997; Manning et al. 2001; Forenbaher 1993). It enables us to say that these chariots are the earliest known from the Old World, and to propose that thechariot drawn by harnessed horses originated in the Volga-Ural region. In consequence, thisregion can be seen as a centre of cultural genesis whence important innovations spread overthe territory of northern Eurasia (Bochkaryov 1991), initiating a new epoch in the history of Europe.

      • UWAGA!!! UWAGA!!! UWAGA!!!

        27min filmu powyżej. Artefakty znajdywane na wschodzie stepu, koło Ałtaju, są identyczne jak te znajdywane na zachodzie stepu! Y DNA i MtDNA znalezione w grobach kultury afanasiewskiej pochodzi z zachodniego stepu i jest zgodne z DNA z Ukrainy, POLSKI i CZECH, co wyjaśnia pochodzenie Tocharów!

        Wędrówka kultury afanasiewskiej z zachodniego stepu do zachodnich partii gór Ałtaj, prawdopodobnie wyjaśnia rozprzestrzenienie się PIE na wschód i powstanie j. tocharskiego.

        Kultura Jamna, ok tzw. 3300-2800r pne przyjechała ze wschodu stepu na jego zachód wraz z dwu osiowymi wozami i wszędzie sypała kurhany!
        Characteristic for the culture are the inhumations in kurgans (tumuli) in pit graves with the dead body placed in a supine position with bent knees. The bodies were covered in ochre. Multiple graves have been found in these kurgans, often as later insertions.[citation needed]

        Significantly, animal grave offerings were made (cattle, sheep, goats and horse), a feature associated with Proto-Indo-Europeans (including Proto-Indo-Iranians).[2]

        The earliest remains in Eastern Europe of a wheeled cart were found in the „Storozhova mohyla” kurgan (Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine, excavated by Trenozhkin A.I.) associated with the Yamna culture.(…)

        Indo-European Dispersals and the Eurasian Steppe with J.P. Mallory

        R1a1a…. znajdują wszędzie, ale… nie ma to wielkiego znaczenia, bo genetyka może się zmienić, co udowadniają na populacji Węgier…

        Trypolska kultura ok tzw. 3400r pne przechodzi załamanie i wielkie osady koło rzeki Bug? upadają.
        Ludzie przenoszą się na wschód.
        „Rewolucja neolityczna” w Europie. Problem pochodzenia Indoeuropejczyków
        Poszukiwania „praojczyzny” Indoeuropejczyków przed rozpadem ich wspólnoty na oddzielne grupy językowe i języki – a obecnie rozmawia nimi przeważająca większość ludności europejskiej – mają długą i bardzo złożoną historię. Szukano jej w Indiach i w Azji Środkowej, w różnych regionach Europy Zachodniej, Środkowej i Wschodniej. Wśród wielu zaproponowanych wersji można wyodrębnić kilka najbardziej argumentowanych hipotez.

        Pierwsza. Praojczyzna Indoeuropejczyków znajdowała się między Renem na zachodzie, Morzem Północnym a Bałtyckim na północy, Alpami, Bałkanami a Morzem Czarnym na południu, na terenach stepowych Wołgi i Donu na wschodzie. Tereny te zasiedlane były VI–V w. p.n.e. przez europeidów, którzy z czasem przesunęli się w kierunku południowo-wschodnim. W V w. p.n.e. na gruncie miejscowych kultur mezolitycznych rozwinęły się kultury neolityczne, twórcami których byli słabo zróżnicowani przedstawiciele języka praindoeuropejskiego (Ertebolle-Ellerbek, kultury ceramiki wstęgowej rytej, trypolskiej, jamowej dorzecza Dniepru i Donu itp.)[31].

        Druga. Najstarsi nosiciele języka praindoeuropejskiego zasiedlali obszar stepowy północnego wybrzeża Morza Czarnego i Azowskiego, gdzie w V w. p.n.e. na miejscowej podstawie mezolitycznej uformowała się kultura mariupolska, która wchodziła do dniepro-donieckiej historyczno-kulturowej wspólnoty okresu neolitu. Z czasem, podczas procesu rozwoju gospodarstwa odtwórczego w ostatnim kwartale V–pierwszej połowie IV w. p.n.e. wyłoniła się tu kultura pierwszych prawdziwych hodowców – Srednij-Stog, z którą związane były pierwsze migracje plemion indoeuropejskich w kierunkach zachodnim i wschodnim. Szczególnego nasilenia nabrały one w następnym okresie historycznym, kiedy to na wschodnioeuropejskich stepach wyłoniła się kultura jamowa. Przyczyniło się to do rozpadu języka praindoeuropejskiego na oddzielne grupy językowe[32].

        Trzecia. Praojczyzny Indoeuropejczyków należy szukać na wschodzie Azji Mniejszej i na wyżynie Armańskiej, skąd pod koniec V w. p.n.e. plemiona tej wspólnoty zaczęły rozprzestrzeniać się na zachodnie rejony półwyspu Anatolijskiego, Bałkany i południe Europy Środkowej. Dopuszcza się także „okrągłą drogę” części pradawnych Indoeuropejczyków w Europie dokoła Morza Kaspijskiego przez Azję Centralną[33]. Z hipotezą tą w pewnej mierze rywalizuje wersja bałkańska, według której najdawniejsi rolnicy – przedstawiciele nie rozczłonowanego języka praindoeuropejskiego – na początku przesiedlili się z Azji Mniejszej na Bałkany, a w VI i V w. p.n.e. przemieścili się w najbardziej odległe zakątki Europy, zapoczątkowując w ten sposób tworzenie się oddzielnych grup języków dawnych i współczesnych indoeuropejskiej rodziny językowej[34].

        Żadna z tych hipotez nie może być uważana za udowodnioną z braku przekonujących spójności między argumentami lingwistycznymi, archeologicznymi i antropologicznymi. Najbardziej udowodniona jest pierwsza z nich, według której do obszaru praojczyzny współczesnych narodów indoeuropejskich wchodziły tereny dawnej Ukrainy i Polski.

        Wszyscy badacze zgadzają się, że „indoeuropeizacja” Europy, gdziekolwiek by się ona zaczęła, zakończyła się w epoce brązu (koniec III–II w. p.n.e.), kiedy Indoeuropejczycy prawie całkiem zasymilowali dawną ludność neolityczną Europy Zachodniej, Środkowej i Wschodniej. Ostatnie narody tych wielkich terenów historyczno-geograficznych, żyjące przed Indoeuropejczykami, zniknęły w I w. p.n.e. (na przykład Etruskowie). Wyjątkiem są Baskowie, których język uważa się za relikt nie poddający się żadnej klasyfikacji.(…)

      • Komentarz do ostatniego tekstu. Panom archeologom pomyliły się tysiąclecia z wiekami, a co do Etrusków, jako nie-indoeuropejczyków z ich rydwanami i swargami, runami itp. bez komentarza… hehehe

  4. Jak to „Germanie” chcą być… i jak byli…

    Christa Herzog 1 rok temu
    The Nebra Disc, 3600 years old, found in Germany together with remains of an old German culture. It is the oldest images of the sky (today’s knowledge). How littel do we know about old cultures? How many more will we find?

    Dysk z Nebry (niem. Himmelsscheibe von Nebra) – brązowy dysk z epoki brązu, pochodzący z miejscowości Nebra (Unstrut) w kraju związkowym Saksonia-Anhalt w Niemczech. Został odkryty wraz z kilkoma innymi zabytkami brązowymi w 1999 roku za pomocą wykrywacza metali przez dwójkę poszukiwaczy skarbów rabujących znajdujące się w pobliżu Nebry kurhany.(…)

    • Kolejny dowód na życzeniowy charakter germańskiej tzw. XIXw nauki i jej późniejszych następców i naśladowców. Błędy i nadinterpretacje zdarzają się wszędzie i każdemu, dlatego i my tu możemy mieć własne. Germańskie pochodzenie Gutians, Getians i Gotians.. itp. pozostawiam bez komentarza…
      Physical appearance
      According to the historian Henry Hoyle Howorth (1901), Assyriologist Theophilus Pinches (1908), renowned archaeologist Leonard Woolley (1929) and Assyriologist Ignace Gelb (1944) the Gutians were pale skinned and blonde haired.[13][14][15][16] This identification of the Gutians as fair haired first came to light when Julius Oppert (1877) published a set of tablets he had discovered which described Gutian (and Subarian) slaves as namrum or namrûtum, meaning „light colored” or „fair-skinned”.(…)

      Modern connection theories
      The historical Guti have been regarded by some as among the ancestors of the Kurds.[24][25][26][27][28][29][30] However, the term Guti had by late antiquity become a „catch all” term to describe all tribal peoples in the Zagros region, and according to J.P. Mallory, the original Gutians precede the arrival of Indo-Iranian peoples (of which the Kurds are one) by some 1500 years[31]

      In the late 19th-century, Assyriologist Julius Oppert sought to connect the Gutians of remote antiquity with the later Gutones (Goths), whom Ptolemy in 150 AD had known as the Guti, a tribe of Scandia. Oppert’s theory on this connection is not shared by many scholars today, in the absence of further evidence.
      However, according to Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze and Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov, Gutian language was close to Tocharian languages of the Indo-European family.[4]

      To co twierdzi Mallory jest co najmniej dziwne, biorąc pod uwagę Hitti, a zwłaszcza Mittani, które były indo-europejskimi królestwami w tamtym regionie, niby typowo semickim…
      The Mitanni kingdom was referred to as the Maryannu, Nahrin or Mitanni by the Egyptians, the Hurri by the Hittites, and the Hanigalbat by the Assyrians.

      Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni are considered to form (part of) an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion.

      In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni (between Suppiluliuma and Shattiwaza, ca. 1380 BC), the deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya (Ashvins) are invoked. Kikkuli’s horse training text (circa 1400 BC) includes technical terms such as aika (Vedic Sanskrit eka, one), tera (tri, three), panza (pañca, five), satta (sapta, seven), na (nava, nine), vartana (vartana, round). The numeral aika „one” is of particular importance because it places the superstrate in the vicinity of Indo-Aryan proper (Vedic Sanskrit eka, with regular contraction of /ai/ to [eː]) as opposed to Indo-Iranian or early Iranian (which has *aiva; compare Vedic eva „only”) in general. (…)

  5. Project Germani: Early Germanic Runes and Languages Part I

    5min hełmy z Negau i zdjęcia pierwszych „germańskich”run!

    I teraz nasuwa się samo pytanie o naukową wiarygodność wiki i co za tym idzie współczesnej „nauki”…
    Piję do odwróconego drzewa języków IE i do sposobu uszeregowania języków na podstawie „zanotowania”. Hełmy z Negau, mają być z tzw. 130r pne więc jako „germańskie”, przeczą tzw. 6w ne.

    Ciekawe czy łacińskie cyfry nie wzięły się z Etruskich, a te… proszę zobaczyć mapkę „Glacial Ukrainian Refuge” i zobaczyć gdzie nie było lądolodu!

    Ago Künnap University of Tartu
    Possible Language Shifts in the Uralic Language Group

    I am convinced that Uralic languages do not descend from one, more or less unitary proto-language, spoken about 8,000–4,000 years ago in the Uralic proto-home in West Siberia, South Urals or in the Volga area from where the speakers of that proto-language began to spread out, primarily westward, just as the traditional Uralicists usually suppose. The proto-home of the Uralic languages and the speakers of these languages could conventionally be regarded as locating in the area of the Ukraine, to the north of the Black Sea where during the Last Glacial Maximum (23,000–19,500 years ago) the eastward refuge of the European human population – the Ukrainian refuge – could have taken place. The westward refuge could have located in Iberia (Franco-Cantabria) and the middle, a relatively small one – in the Balkans.

    In the cold and dry climate of the Last Glacial Maximum both humans and animals found shelter in those refuges as the latter offered tolerable climatic conditions, also for the vegetation. As suggested by Kalevi Wiik, concerning the Ukrainian refuge it is possible to conventionally observe the Uralic proto-language or rather a Finno-Ugric-type intermediary lingua franca that made the languages spoken in the refuge similar. Similarly, in the Iberian refuge a Basque type lingua franca and in the Balkan refuge a possibly Indo-European type lingua franca were operating much the same way. (See Wiik 2002.) After the Last Glacial Maximum the flora, fauna and human populations moved in the wake of the retreating icecap to ice-free areas whose humid climate fostered the plant growth, in particular. From these refuges human populations spread out in the fan-shaped form to North Europe, over the whole ice-free area (see Fig. 1).

    >From the Ukrainian refuge the people spread over the area that eventually extended from the so-called North Sea Land on the site of the present-day British Isles as far as the Urals. It should be regarded as probable that the Uralic lingua franca was functioning in the area also before the Last Glacial Maximum, consequently before the people gathered in the refuges. It continued functioning in the Ukrainian refuge and, in addition to this, also in the ice-free area, creating a foundation by making languages into the present-day Uralic languages. As a result of people’s spreading out from the larger refuges the whole northward Europe was shared by the Basque and Uralic type of languages (see Fig. 2).

    Genetically, the human population of Europe is regarded as Europoid and has mainly remained Europoid to date. It is also held valid for the whole European Finno-Ugric-speaking population. The Mongoloid population, arriving at the area on the Volga and its neighbourhood within the last 1,600 years from the direction of Asia, has turned part of speakers living there somewhat Mongoloid. At the same time we can observe that the speakers of Samoyed languages are strongly Mongoloid. Richard Villems’ data confirm that: in the maternal lineages (mtDNA) Nenetses inherit ca 53 %, Nganasans 88 % and Selkups 36 % from Asia (Villems 2002). Thereby, e.g., Selkups’ European-related maternal lineages have few varieties, indicating that those reached the Selkups relatively recently, giving no branches as yet. Villems also indicates that when observing the “classical set” of the Mongoloid maternal lineages, as, for instance, in the Chinese, Mongols or Kirghizes, then it is formed from the groups A, B, F and M of maternal lineages. At the same time, from the four groups practically only M has spread among Lapps, Finns, Karelians and Nenetses. He supposes that the Uralic-speaking peoples could have had contacts with the maternal lineages of the Paleosiberian settlers among whom very possibly predominated single variants of Asian M-lineages. (Villems 2002.)

    Therefore it is fully conceivable that the ancestors of Samoyeds came from Asia, having originally been Mongoloid. Besides, the Mongoloid M-lineages in Nenetses (having, to a lesser degree, spread from them to the Lapps, and from them to Finns and Karelians) show that Nenetses and, as expected, other Samoyeds descend from Paleosiberians. The Samoyeds replaced their earlier, a Paleosiberian type of language (languages) by a language (languages) of a Finno-Ugric type. The language shift is testified by the Paleosiberian substratum in Samoyed languages. The substratum is so strong that, based on respective linguistic material, János Pusztay has persuasively indicated a particularly close typological connection with Paleosiberian languages (see Pusztay 1995: 11–37, 123–125; 1998). The linguists, who as expected deny the suggested language shift, opine that the postulated human population of the Uralic proto-home in West Siberia, South Urals or the Volgaic area need not have been genetically unitary. Their opinion is conceivable, principally, but the research results of the population genetics and archaeology provide not the least basis for the postulation of such an eastward proto-home and the subsequent migration, primarily westward. Considering the Ukrainian refuge as the starting point, the conception of the original Europoid and Mongoloid Uralic-speaking population fails to prove anything.

    It has been known for some time already that Finnic-Lapp and Samoyed languages share a number of exceptional common features, lacking in other Finno-Ugric languages. Their evidence has been explained by a well-preserved heritage of the Uralic proto-language in the western and eastern peripheries of the Uralic language group. This explanation has no considerable foundation. First, such a theory of proto-language and periphery is no more regarded as universal in linguistics. Second, there is no reason to regard Finnic-Lapp and Samoyed languages as belonging to the western and eastern peripheries, respectively, because the linguistic area of the most widely used Samoyed language – Nenets – extends as far as the White Sea in the west. The place names, mainly, prove that formerly the area of use of the Finnic-Lapp type of languages extended to the north-eastern corner of Europe (see, e.g., Saarikivi 2000), probably as far as the Northern Urals (see Matveev 1976: 120–121; 2001; see also Fig. 3). I have noted before that there are many more exceptional Finnic-Lapp-Samoyed common features than believed heretofore and, based on that, I have supposed that in the course of their language shift, the ancestors of Samoyeds took over namely the Finnic-Lapp type of language form (see, e.g., Künnap 1996; 2000: 48–52).

    There is a special reason to observe Lapps (Saamis). In accordance with the estimation by the population geneticists’ research group headed by Villems, Lapps descend from common maternal lineages of Europe, although 5 % of their genetic heritage is related to Mongoloid (Villems 2002). I regard the 5 % share as the impact of their Samoyed Nenets neighbours because other sources of influence are practically impossible to detect. (Similarly, Villems supposes the arrival of the Mongoloid maternal lineages in the westernmost Finno-Ugrians proceeding namely along the shores of the Arctic Ocean.) Namely, in the Late Glacier the Lapps’ ancestors moved along the Norwegian western coast that was ice-free thanks to the Gulf Stream, up to the north and reached the northernmost point of Scandinavia 11,000 years ago at the latest. In Scandinavia the Lapps remained isolated from the rest of the European population behind the ice field for thousands of years, both genetically and linguistically. (See Fig. 4.) (…)

    • Przepraszam, pomyliłem linki z filmami. Ten film zamieszczony na górze to oddzielny film o powstaniu R1a i R1b itp.

      Tu załączam właściwe linki do filmów o „piśmie germańskim”. Dużo zdjęć i tłumaczeń. Bardzo ważne i ciekawe, jak wiele z tego ci niby jest oficjalnie odtworzone i poprawne, jest tak naprawdę jedynie germańskim domysłem. Pomijam datowanie nieistniejącego oryginału Srebrnej Biblii na tzw. 350r ne. podane tu przy okazji j. gockiego. Oni tu uczciwie chociaż przyznają, że istniejąca tzw. Srebrna Biblia to tylko kopia!

      Project Germani: Early Germanic Runes and Languages Part I
      Project Germani: Early Germanic Runes and Language Part II
      Project Germani: Early Germanic Runes and Languages Part III

      Uwaga, tłumaczenia i wymowa nazw run są niedoskonałe, czego dowodzą następne filmy, zamieszczone w moim następnym komentarzu.

      • Gothic for Goths – Lesson 01: The Alphabet, Part 1

        Gothic for Goths – Lesson 01: The Alphabet, Part 2

        gruumish 1 rok temu
        Delta was sometimes written like a D, just a little more angled in the loop. This could have been modified when converted to runic into the þ rune and then mirrored like my explanation of gamma below to give us the d rune (it literally looks like two deltas mirroring each other like conjoined twins.)and I believe the a rune came from a slightly curved alpha that somehow lost its right leg. if it had stayed unchanged it would have looked like the u rune with a line in the middle.

        gruumish 1 rok temu
        Also lambda was also some times written in Greek either like the latin l or the runic l. Latin f, Gothic f, runic f, and Etruscan f all come from the obsolete letter digamma (aka wau), omega is most likely the inspiration for the o rune, u rune was an upside down ypsilon (either lower case, or in some areas, ypsilon was written without the decender, making it look like a V.)

        gruumish 1 rok temu
        Funny thing is that not all of ancient Greece had a unified version of the alphabet,in some versions like Euboean (from which Etruscan, and later Latin Alphabets developed from) had sigma written like the later runic s(which in earlier forms looked like the standard sigma, just with the top and bottom ends angled). For some reason runic letters lost the horizontal line, probably to make it easier to carve on small pieces of wood, so that the tops and bottoms where visible and not on the edge.

        gruumish1 rok temu
        well I think that is it, please forgive me for posting so much, but I was just trying to show that with a little bit of thinking outside of the box, the connections to runic, Greek, Gothic, and Latin letters were more noticeable. oh one more thing the letters have only numeric value probably comes from the obsolete greek letter koppa(or qoppa) for the number 90 and obsolete sampi for 900. Again I am sorry for the rant but I hope some of the points i made, make sense to you ^.^

        gruumish 1 rok temu
        This is probably lead to the e rune being turned to look like an m, because it looked like the s rune and they couldn’t change it when it was standing up, so it got flipped over and they decided it was easier to change the m rune. this could also explain the p rune being written the way it is, because it probably came from pi and if it stayed in its original position in runic, it would have looked strange, so again another letter got turned to a more manageable position.

        gruumish 1 rok temu
        Gamma was sometimes written like a c, giving the inspiration for the latin letter c and possibly the k rune (either that or the frontal part of k got chopped off from the back) and j rune ( think about it the same letter being mirrored, almost touching each other, which is how I kinda see the letter G as, a c curved gamma, and a backwards regular gamma connected to make another letter.

        Frosthjertet 4 lata temu
        Tiws letter gets its name from runic letter Tiwaz, but you’ve mistaken in saying that it was named after some germanic skygod. Since Tiwaz was meant to represent Týr, the AEsir god of blacksmithing and war mostly. I mean, he’s not a skygod, wargod must say. Anyway, great videos.

        BenJamin P. Johnson 4 lata temu
        w odpowiedzi na komentarz, który napisał(a) Frosthjertet
        Thanks. I agree, Týr was definitely a war-god, and possibly earlier Tiwaz too, though the Norse did have a propensity to turn pretty much every god into a war-god of sorts. If you follow the word back far enough, though, it’s believed that earlier Tiwaz was the father of the gods (not Wodanaz as in later Norse). Ultimately, if you follow the root back far enough, you get two indoeuropean words: deiwos and dyēus, which are probably from a common root even further back in pre-indoeuropean…

        BenJamin P. Johnson 4 lata temu
        Darn short comment fields. …anyway, this is the root of Tīwaz, greek θεός (theos) and Ζεύς (Zeus), latin deus and Jupiter, sanskrit deva and Dyauṣpitār… in indoeuropean it was usually paired with pHter (father), as in Jupiter and Dyauṣpitār, and meant something along the lines of „Sky-Father,” which coordinated with PltwiHmHter (Earth-Mother). It’s also related to the latin diēs (day), which makes me laugh because that makes ‚Teusday’ kinda redundant.

      • Ponownie niby najnowsze dane, ale ani satem Mittani i Pali nie są uwzględnione. Ok niby są, ale są niewymienione. Ok. Wszystko jest przemieszane ze sobą, satem i kentum… Ale jak się zobaczy podobieństwa między pali a polskim, to jednak coś tu nie tak jest z tym schematem…
        Despite support for an Anatolian Indo-European origin, we think it unlikely that agriculture serves as the sole driver of language expansion on the continent. The five major Indo-European subfamiliesCeltic, Germanic, Italic, Balto-Slavic, and Indo-Iranianall emerged as distinct lineages between 4000 and 6000 years ago (Fig. 2 and fig. S1), contemporaneous with a number of later cultural expansions evident in the archaeological record, including the Kurgan expansion (57). Our inferred tree also shows that within each subfamily, the languages we sampled began to diversify between 2000 and 4500 years ago, well after the agricultural expansion had run its course.

        I think this is the most important passage of the paper. Reading between the lines, it says that the origination point for Indo-European languages simply may not address the archaeological record. What if Indo-European got its start in Anatolia 10,000 years ago, but many of the modern branches of Indo-European within Europe — Celtic, Italic, Germanic — all moved into Europe in several separate waves, starting less than 6000 years ago from the Pontic Steppe? We have pretty good genetic evidence now that the first farmers in Europe were not very much like recent Europeans. We need later migrations into Europe from elsewhere to explain the genetic record, and the archaeology (and later, history) provides plenty of reasons to think that later migrations were important.
        Two IE phylogenies, three PIE migrations, and four kinds of steppe

        gerdie September 7, 2012 at 12:08 pm

        There are several weaknesses in the article by Bouckaert et al that together might very well invalidate their conclusion.

        One weakness seems to make a rather common reasoning error: equating a basal branch with origin. Basal branching does not directly translate into origin, as any biologist should know – the platypus is not the origin of the placentals. Moreover, the point about basal and origin can be seen in Bouckaert et al’s supplementary information that gives the large phylogenetic tree. We know Latin is the origin of the Romance languages, and Latin clusters basal to Romance languages – OK. But Gothic is not the origin of the other Germanic languages, just clusters basal. And Romani, the Gypsy language, clusters basal to all other extant Indian languages; it won’t be the origin of those languages. The phylogenetic tree is fully compatible with Hittite the earliest to branch out from PIE (Aaron Clausen said above), rather than Hittite representing the origin of PIE.

        Moreover, the shape of the phylogenetic tree in fig 2 of the article makes no sense if one considers an Anatolian homeland. Apart from a few non-significant early branches with the known problem languages, the main split in Bouckaert et al is between Indo-Iranian and a Western group. Look at the map in fig 2. That map presents two possibilities: Indo-Iranian departed first from Anatolia, or the Western branch departed first from Anatolia. In both cases the branch that first departed should cluster more basal, and the branch that left last should cluster with Anatolian! The phylogenetic tree (as presented fig 2) says IE should depart from Anatolia and after that split (where? Kurgan area?) into Indo-Iranian and Western language group.

        Another weakness is the reliance on written languages. We know the historic Skythians spoke an IE language (of the Iranian branch it is thought), but as we only know Skythian from a few words recorded by Greek authors, Skythian is absent in Bouckaert’s database. The area of Skythian is represented in Bouckaert’s figure S4 only by the late invasion of Slavonic languages. Given that Skythian is in the Kurgan area, the absence of early IE branches in the Kurgan area in Bouckaert’s modeling is not a result but a clear artifact.
        Mapping the Origins and Expansion of the Indo-European Language Family – Remco Bouckaert

        There are two competing hypotheses for the origin of the Indo-European language family. The conventional view places the homeland in the Pontic steppes about 6000 years ago. An alternative hypothesis claims that the languages spread from Anatolia with the expansion of farming 8000 to 9500 years ago. We used Bayesian phylogeographic approaches, together with basic vocabulary data from 103 ancient and contemporary Indo-European languages, to explicitly model the expansion of the family and test these hypotheses. We found decisive support for an Anatolian origin over a steppe origin. Both the inferred timing and root location of the Indo-European language trees fit with an agricultural expansion from Anatolia beginning 8000 to 9500 years ago. These results highlight the critical role that phylogeographic inference can play in resolving debates about human prehistory.

        Problems in the method and interpretations of the computational phylogenetics based on linguistic data. An example of wishful thinking: Bouckaert et al. 2012
        Jaakko Häkkinen, 23rd September 2012

  6. A teraz pytanie, co ze zmianami w językach słowiańskich i jak się to wszystko ma do sanskrytu?
    Podpowiadam, że odpowiedź jest opublikowana w komentarzach pod artykułem o słowie wino.
    Jedyna różnica jest taka,że w sanskrycie do 3 spółgłosek dodana jest spółgłoska h…

    Ktoś z tych germańskich lingwistów, co z j. gockiego odtworzyli PIE, słyszał oprawie Ockhama?

    Verner’s Law, Part 1 of 3

    Verner’s Law, Part 2 of 3

    Verner’s Law, Part 3 of 3

    Part 1 deals with the „discovery” of the first consonant shift, which, in effect, gave birth to the Germanic languages.

    Part 2 deals with Verner’s Law itself, an exception to the first consonant shift.

    Blue Note 1 rok temu
    PIE ‚t’ is firs affected by Grimm’s law and becomes ‚th’. Then according to Verner’s law ‚th’ becomes voiced and turns into ‚ð’. So why eventually it is represented as ‚d’. Can anyone explain that?

  7. Przy okazji run itp. Proszę porównajcie wygląd liter i brzmienie tych liter w j. samarytańskim i greckim.
    Zobaczcie jak bardzo zmieniły się znaki tzw. pisma hebrajskiego… Jak dla mnie to są runy i ich wymowa brzmi jak jawie – ob-jawiony…
    The Samaritans understood the pronunciation to be iabe. Some patristic sources give evidence for a Greek pronunciation iaō.[5]

  8. O celtyckości Cybmrów, czyli niby pierwszych „germanów”, (jak i niby Teutonowie, co mieli celtyckich wodzów i co mówili po celtycku i przyszli z Jutlandii), co bili Rzymian, ale na koniec zostali pobici przez Mariusza w tzw 104r pne …

    Ciekawe, że i R1a też się wśród nich znajduje…

    Inne ciekawe linki dotyczące niestety zmieszania germańskiego…

    • Żeby zamknąć temat kto kim był i jest wśród Germanów i nie tylko…

      Wednesday, December 31, 2008
      Best of 2008: Corded Ware DNA from Germany

      One of the biggest hits of the year for this blogger was the discovery of Y-DNA haplogroup R1a in three Corded Ware skeletons from a burial site in Eulau, eastern Germany. It’s an important result, because it links a major Bronze Age archeological complex with one of the most dominant Y-chromosome haplogroups in Europe today. (…)

      Teraz „czystej krwi” Germanie poszukują już siebie w R1b, N, J, I1 i I2, G, E itp…no i w R1a z Eulau…
      Tak samo robią czystej krwi tzw. Żydzi aszkenazyjcy, zwłaszcza ci co niby pochodzą od „czystej krwi” semitów z rodu A-brahmana i Lewiego…

      Wednesday, October 9, 2013
      Most Ashkenazi maternal lineages are of European origin

      A new study on the maternal ancestry of Ashkenazi Jews at Nature Communications argues that at least 80% of Ashkenazi mtDNA lineages were absorbed from European host populations. Here are a few quotes from the paper that caught my attention:

      Several [studies] suggest a primarily Levantine ancestry with south/west European admixture3,4, but another concludes that the ancestry is largely Caucasian16, implying a major source from converts in the Khazar kingdom17. An important reason for disagreement is that the Ashkenazim have undergone severe founder effects during their history, drastically altering the frequencies of genetic markers and distorting the relationship with their ancestral populations.

      Actually, genome-wide genetic markers place Ashkenazi Jews squarely in the East Mediterranean region, but closer to Southern Europe than to the Near East (note the position of European Jews on my PCA of West Eurasia here). In other words, Ashkenazi Jews are genetically very similar to southern Italians and many Greeks.

        David Anthony, Early Indo-European migrations, economies, and phylogenies

        Od ok 44 min przykład jak D. Anthony opisuje powstanie języków kentum Pre-Celtik i Pre-Italik przez pojawienie się ludzi z kultury Yamnaya/jamowej w dolinie Dunaju… ok tzw. 3000r pne
        Potem ok, 45 min opisuje połączenie się kultury trypolskiej z kulturą jamową, a potem ok. 46 min opisuje jak ta kultura podzieliła się na dwie grupy… jedna satem Pre Slavic a druga…kentum Pre Germanic i ta poszła sobie na tereny Polski!!! HAHAHAHAHA!!!

        Jak dla mnie to lingwistyczne mistrzostwo manipulacji jest!!! Ktoś z was umie to logicznie wytłumaczyć, jak ci biedni rozpadający się właśnie trypolianie tak się nagle rozróżnili językowo…hm? Co to sprawiło?

  9. I jeszcze kto kim był i jest, czyli R1a właściwie wszędzie, nawet dawno temu na Syberii…

    Monday, May 18, 2009
    Ancient Siberians carrying R1a1 had light eyes

    It looks like more than 60% of the Kurgan (including Scytho-Siberian) samples successfully tested here for pigmentation markers were blue or green eyed and fair haired:

    In the present study, a multiplexed genotyping assay for ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within six pigmentation candidate genes was developed on modern biological samples and applied to DNA retrieved from 25 archeological human remains from southern central Siberia dating from the Bronze and Iron Ages. SNP genotyping was successful for the majority of ancient samples and revealed that most probably had typical European pigment features, i.e., blue or green eye color, light hair color and skin type, and were likely of European individual ancestry. (…)

    Sunday, May 24, 2009
    Ancient Siberians carrying R1a1 had light eyes – take 2

    Hot on the heels of that recent Bouakaze et al. paper on the pigmentation genetics of prehistoric South Siberians, here’s another effort based on the same samples and by basically the same team. This paper attempts to further elucidate the origins of these light-pigmented Kurgan nomads, including so called Scytho-Siberians.

    Our autosomal, Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA analyses reveal that whereas few specimens seem to be related matrilineally or patrilineally, nearly all subjects belong to haplogroup R1a1-M17 which is thought to mark the eastward migration of the early Indo-Europeans. Our results also confirm that at the Bronze and Iron Ages, south Siberia was a region of overwhelmingly predominant European settlement, suggesting an eastward migration of Kurgan people across the Russo-Kazakh steppe. Finally, our data indicate that at the Bronze and Iron Age timeframe, south Siberians were blue (or green)-eyed, fair-skinned and light-haired people and that they might have played a role in the early development of the Tarim Basin civilization. (…)

    • W poszukiwaniu germańskiej tożsamości w opozycji do Indo-Europejskości R1a… no ładnie germańscy aryjczycy, no ładnie… A co jak i tam będzie R1a i co wtedy?
      Saturday, December 12, 2009
      Germans test Funnelbeaker (TRB) Culture aDNA

      About 250 Funnelbeaker (Trichterbecherkultur) and Wartberg Culture skeletons are being tested for Y-DNA, mtDNA and autosomal SNP and STR markers at a lab in Kiel. They come from 3400-3000BC burial sites at Panker, eastern Schleswig-Holstein, Großenrode and Odagsen, southern Lower Saxony, and Calden, North Hessen. All of those places are in North-Central Germany. The scientists not only hope to determine the ancestry of the samples, but also their pigmentation traits, by looking at SNPs associated with hair, skin and eye color.

      Verwandtschaft, Abstammung und Phänotyp. Genetische Zusammensetzung mittelneolithischer Populationen und ihre Beziehung zu sozialen Differenzierungen 3400-3000cal BC

      The Trichterbecherkultur (TRB) is commonly thought of as one of the cultures of „Old Europe”, as per the works of archeologist Marija Gimbutas, and thus pre-Indo-European. It was found from present day Netherlands to Poland, and as far north as southern Norway. The theory goes that this cultural zone was invaded by the Kurgan horsemen from the Eastern European steppe around 3000BC, and transformed into the Corded Ware horizon within a short time. However, some European archeologists think the change happened as a local phenomenon. So it’ll be interesting to see if the results of the studies in Kiel help to resolve this issue.

      Three 4600 year old, paternally related Corded Ware skeletons from Eulau, Central-East Germany, were recently tested for Y-DNA, and came back R1a1 (see here). Were these the descendants of intruders from the steppe responsible for the cultural shift in the region? If none of the TRB samples come back R1a1, the proto-Indo-European migration scenario will look very plausible.
      Wednesday, June 10, 2009
      Latest genetic studies on ancient Siberians backed up by past work with cranial traits

      Considering the new stuff that’s just come out on the DNA of Bronze and Iron Age Southern Siberians, I thought it was worth mentioning this study by V.G. Moiseyev from 2006. It’s based on non-metric cranial traits, and basically tells the same story as the ancient Y-DNA, mtDNA, and autosomal markers.

      The analysis of nonmetric cranial traits has revealed various affinities of the Early Iron Age Western and Southern Siberian members of the so-called “Scytho-Siberian community.” Most of them descended from Chalcolithic and Bronze Age Caucasoid immigrants from the west. During the Early Iron Age, these immigrants had mostly assimilated the aboriginal populations of the steppe zone, characterized by plesiomorphic trait combinations that were still discernible in certain groups such as those associated with Krotovo and Okunev cultures.

      The beginning of a new stage in the population history of this region (the large-scale immigration of Mongoloid groups from Eastern Central Asia and their hybridization with the Caucasoids) is documented by the markedly “eastern” tendency displayed by the series from Arzhan-2. In earlier periods, eastern traits only concentrated in separate individuals, implying that the immigration was small-scale (rather, one might speak of an infiltration of small Mongoloid groups, which were subsequently assimilated by the Caucasoids).

      A phylogenetic tree from the paper shows a sample of modern „Caucasoids” from Eastern Europe clustering very closely with crania from the Karasuk culture. They’re also pretty close to all the other purported Indo-Iranians, as well as Volga and Baltic Finns, and furthest away from the „Mongoloid” samples that include early Turks, Ugrians, Samoyeds, and Eastern Siberians.

      V. G. Moiseyev, Nonmetric traits in Early Iron Age cranial series from Western and Southern Siberia, Archaeology, Ethnology and Anthropology of Eurasia, Volume 25, Number 1 / July, 2006, DOI: 10.1134/S1563011006010117

      • A teraz o manipulacjach wiki i allo-allo. Wstyd już wam i hańba?
        Pytanie, czy z powodu tych skorup garnków ze swargami/swastykami germański rasista Kossina wymyślił sobie to co sobie wymyślił o Germanach co byli przed Słowianami? Hehehe…

        Kultura amfor kulistych to jedna z kultur neolitu, która występowała w latach 3100-2600 p.n.e. w dorzeczu Łaby, w Polsce, Mołdawii, na Wołyniu i Podolu.

        Ceramika kultury amfor kulistych
        Nazwa tej kultury pochodzi od charakterystycznego dla niej typu wyrobów ceramicznych o kulistym brzuścu. Ludność tej kultury eksploatowała krzemień pasiasty z kopalni w Krzemionkach Opatowskich. Na terenie Polski pozostawiła po sobie grobowce megalityczne typu skrzynkowego datowane na połowę III tysiąclecia p.n.e.
        Ponieważ wiadomo, że umieszczany na garnkach znak swastyki był symbolem Słońca i Dobra oznacza to, że te znaki są pierwszymi znakami pisanymi na obecnych ziemiach polskich

        A teraz co na ten sam temat ma do powiedzenia angielska wiki. (Niemieckiej nawet nie sprawdzam…)

        The Globular Amphora Culture (GAC), German Kugelamphoren-Kultur (KAK), ca. 3400–2800 BC, is an archaeological culture preceding the central area occupied by the Corded Ware culture. Somewhat to the south and west, it was bordered by the Baden culture. To the northeast was the Narva culture. It occupied much of the same area as the earlier Funnelbeaker culture. The name was coined by Gustaf Kossinna because of the characteristic pottery, globular-shaped pots with two to four handles. The Globular Amphora culture is thought to be of Indo-European origin and was succeeded by the Corded Ware culture.
        The inclusion of animals in the grave is seen as an intrusive cultural element by Marija Gimbutas. The practice of suttee, hypotised by Gimbutas is also seen as a highly intrusive cultural element. The supporters of the Kurgan hypothesis point to these distinctive burial practices and state this may represent one of the earliest migrations of Indo-Europeans into Central Europe. In this context and given its area of occupation, this culture has been claimed as the underlying culture of a Germanic-Baltic-Slavic continuum.[1]

      • Źródła:

        Mikhail M. Charniauski et al. (eds.), Eastern exodus of the globular amphora people: 2950-2350 BC. Poznań, Adam Mickiewicz University, Institute of Prehistory 1996, Baltic-Pontic studies 4.

        J. P. Mallory and D. Q. Adams, Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, London and Chicago, 1997., „Globular Amphora culture”

      • O poszukiwaniu germańskości cd.
        Sunday, August 1, 2010
        Ancient Nordic mtDNA

        There’s a new paper out about ancient Scandinavian mtDNA, courtesy of Melchior et al., and it looks quite useful despite its limited scope (ie. maternal lineages only). Firstly, it suggests that recent suppositions about a sharp genetic divide between Mesolithic and Neolithic North Europeans might have been premature. Secondly, it shows that the modern southern Scandinavian mtDNA structure probably formed during the Iron Age. The latter point fits with my own theory of an influx of populations heavy in Y-DNA haplogroup R1b into Northern Europe during or after the Bronze Age, resulting in the formation of the Germanic language group.(…)

  10. Wyjaśnienie dlaczego niektórzy już rzygają R1a…
    Sunday, March 8, 2009
    How much do we really know about Y-DNA haplogroups? Not much…

    According to this effort, R1a1 was in far Northeastern Europe 10,000 years ago or more. I don’t believe it. In fact, I’m no longer going to bother reading any studies on the origins and age estimates of Y-Chromosome haplogroups, until those concerned get their act together. Not sure exactly when that’s going to happen, but probably not for a while. Anyway, I did find the second bit of this quote quite interesting:

    Expansion times for haplogroup R1a1 date approximately to 18 000 YBP, and age estimates along with Network topology of populations found at opposite poles of its range (Eastern Europe and South Asia) indicate that two separate haplotypic foci exist within this haplogroup.
    Sheyla Mirabal et al, Y-Chromosome distribution within the geo-linguistic landscape of northwestern Russia, European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication 4 March 2009; doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2009.6

    Populations of northeastern Europe and the Uralic mountain range are found in close geographic proximity, but they have been subject to different demographic histories. The current study attempts to better understand the genetic paternal relationships of ethnic groups residing in these regions. We have performed high-resolution haplotyping of 236 Y-chromosomes from populations in northwestern Russia and the Uralic mountains, and compared them to relevant previously published data. Haplotype variation and age estimation analyses using 15 Y-STR loci were conducted for samples within the N1b, N1c1 and R1a1 single-nucleotide polymorphism backgrounds. Our results suggest that although most genetic relationships throughout Eurasia are dependent on geographic proximity, members of the Uralic and Slavic linguistic families and subfamilies, yield significant correlations at both levels of comparison making it difficult to denote either linguistics or geographic proximity as the basis for their genetic substrata. Expansion times for haplogroup R1a1 date approximately to 18 000 YBP, and age estimates along with Network topology of populations found at opposite poles of its range (Eastern Europe and South Asia) indicate that two separate haplotypic foci exist within this haplogroup. Data based on haplogroup N1b challenge earlier findings and suggest that the mutation may have occurred in the Uralic range rather than in Siberia and much earlier than has been proposed (12.9±4.1 instead of 5.2±2.7 kya). In addition, age and variance estimates for haplogroup N1c1 suggest that populations from the western Urals may have been genetically influenced by a dispersal from northeastern Europe (eg, eastern Slavs) rather than the converse.


    A.G. Kozintsev

    Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Universitetskaya Nab. 3, Saint-Petersburg, 199034, Russia

    The article presents some results of a multivariate analysis of 245 male Eurasian cranial series dating to various periods from the Neolithic to the Early Iron Age. These results contradict the commonly held view that certain comparatively gracile (narrow-faced) Bronze Age populations of Southern Siberia and Kazakhstan were “Mediterranean” in the anthropological sense, i.e. Southern Caucasoid. Craniometry provides no support for the theory that those people migrated to Southern Siberia or Kazakhstan from Southwestern Central Asia, the Near East, or Trans-Caucasia. Populations described as “Mediterranean” (the Okunev people of Tuva, the Yelunino, the Samus, and some Afanasiev and Andronov groups) display craniometric resemblance with the Bronze Age people of Southern Russian and Ukrainian steppes, as well as with certain Late Neolithic and Bronze Age groups of Central and Western Europe. These affi nities are apparently caused by migrations of Indo-Europeans (specifi cally Indo-Iranians) from their European homeland eastward, as far as Eastern Central Asia. The return from Eastern Central Asia to Europe of the descendents of one of these groups during the Early Iron Age was probably the principal cause for the emergence of the Scythians on the historical arena.

    Saturday, May 9, 2009
    More on genetic substructure within Europe, this time focusing on the Northeast

    This PLoS paper is the first academic study to use high density genome-wide SNPs to analyze samples from the Baltic States. It shows some interesting and perhaps surprising outcomes, including the following:

    – Estonians are closer to Poles, Latvians and Lithuanians, in that order, than to Finns.

    • Znów o R1a na Syberii i dość dalekim wschodzie tym razem w kulturze Xiaohe.

      Thursday, February 25, 2010
      Bronze Age Tarim Basin „Caucasoids” carried R1a1a (and European mtDNA lineages too)

      Ancient genetic evidence of major migrations from West Eurasia all the way to China during the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age is really piling up now (see also here). This article is open access (ie. free), and focuses on a 4,000-year-old burial site in the Taklamakan desert. Here are a couple of interesting tit-bits…

      Besides the East Eurasian lineage, two West Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups H and K were found among the Xiaohe people. H lineage is the most common mtDNAhaplogroup in West Eurasia [20], but haplogroup H with a 16260T was shared by only nine modern people in Genbank, including one Italian, one German, one Hungarian,one Portuguese, one Icelander and four English people. Haplogroup K, a western Eurasian–specific haplogroup, is mainly distributed in Europe, central Asia, and Iran [20, 21]. However, haplogroup K with 16134T, found in the Xiaohe people, has not been found in modern people to our knowledge.

      Regarding the Y chromosomal DNA analyses, the seven males identified all belonged to haplogroup R1a1a. It is most frequently found in Eastern Europe, South Asia and Siberia. In contrast, it is relatively uncommon in Middle Easterners and rare in East Asian [22-24]. It is thought to be a trace of the migration events of early Indo-European [38-39]. The presence of haplogroup R1a1a in the ancient Xiaohe people implies that the parental ancestry of the Xiaohe people originated from somewhere in Siberia or Europe, which is consistent with the origin of maternal ancestry.

      The Tarim Basin, located on the ancient Silk Road, played a very important role in the history of human migration and cultural communications between the West and the East. However, both the exact period at which the relevant events occurred and the origins of the people in the area remain very obscure. In this paper, we present data from the analyses of both Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) derived from human remains excavated from the Xiaohe cemetery, the oldest archeological site with human remains discovered in the Tarim Basin thus far.

      Mitochondrial DNA analysis showed that the Xiaohe people carried both the East Eurasian haplogroup (C) and the West Eurasian haplogroups (H and K), whereas Y chromosomal DNA analysis revealed only the West Eurasian haplogroup R1a1a in the male individuals.

      Our results demonstrated that the Xiaohe people were an admixture from populations originating from both the West and the East, implying that the Tarim Basin had been occupied by an admixed population since the early Bronze Age. To our knowledge, this is the earliest genetic evidence of an admixed population settled in the Tarim Basin.

    • I jeszcze raz R1a, ale teraz w Mongolii u elity Xiongnu!

      Thursday, January 21, 2010
      2,000-year-old R1a1 West Eurasian dug up in Mongolia

      The authors identify this guy as someone of Indo-European origin who joined the elite ranks of the Xiongnu. You can see a picture of his skull in the supporting info. Also, for some more reading on ancient European-like skeletons and R1a1 deep in Asia, see my earlier blog entry here.

      We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP), and autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) of three skeletons found in a 2,000-year-old Xiongnu elite cemetery in Duurlig Nars of Northeast Mongolia. This study is one of the first reports of the detailed genetic analysis of ancient human remains using the three types of genetic markers. The DNA analyses revealed that one subject was an ancient male skeleton with maternal U2e1 and paternal R1a1 haplogroups. This is the first genetic evidence that a male of distinctive Indo-European lineages (R1a1) was present in the Xiongnu of Mongolia. This might indicate an Indo-European migration into Northeast Asia 2,000 years ago. Other specimens are a female with mtDNA haplogroup D4 and a male with Y-SNP haplogroup C3 and mtDNA haplogroup D4. Those haplogroups are common in Northeast Asia. There was no close kinship among them. The genetic evidence of U2e1 and R1a1 may help to clarify the migration patterns of Indo-Europeans and ancient East-West contacts of the Xiongnu Empire. Artifacts in the tombs suggested that the Xiongnu had a system of the social stratification. The West Eurasian male might show the racial tolerance of the Xiongnu Empire and some insight into the Xiongnu society.

      Kijeong Kim et al., A western Eurasian male is found in 2000-year-old elite Xiongnu cemetery in Northeast Mongolia, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Published Online: 20 Jan 2010, doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21242

    • I znów R1a panoszy się tym razem wśród kapłanów w Indiach…

      Saturday, February 13, 2010
      „Major Eurasian” admix in North Indian upper castes

      According to some people (usually some Indians), the Indo-European invasion of South Asia never happened. But the data I’m seeing says otherwise (see also here).

      The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene, with its known human-specific derived alleles that can facilitate haplotype reconstruction, presents an important locus for anthropological studies. The three sites (TaqIA, TaqIB, and TaqID) of the DRD2 gene are widely studied in various world populations. However, no work has been previously published on DRD2 gene polymorphisms among North Indian populations. Thus, the present study attempts to understand the genetic structure of North Indian upper caste populations using the allele and haplotype frequencies and distribution patterns of the three TaqI sites of the DRD2 gene. Two hundred forty-six blood samples were collected from five upper caste populations of Himachal Pradesh (Brahmin, Rajput and Jat) and Delhi (Aggarwal and Sindhi), and analysis was performed using standard protocols. All three sites were found to be polymorphic in all five of the studied populations. Uniform allele frequency distribution patterns, low heterozygosity values, the sharing of five common haplotypes, and the absence of two of the eight possible haplotypes observed in this study suggest a genetic proximity among the selected populations. The results also indicate a major genetic contribution from Eurasia to North Indian upper castes, apart from the common genetic unity of Indian populations. The study also demonstrates a greater genetic inflow among North Indian caste populations than is observed among South Indian caste and tribal populations.

      Kallur N. Saraswathy et al., Brief communication: Allelic and haplotypic structure at the DRD2 locus among five North Indian caste populations, Received: 28 May 2009; Accepted: 3 November 2009, doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21246

  11. Uuu… nie polubicie tego poszukiwacze germanskosci. Oups, znow mi wcielo polskie znaki grrr…
    Wiec jednak znalezli R1a i tam czyli znow klapa… hehehe! Tak trzymac!
    Tuesday, November 9, 2010
    Ancient Y-DNA and mtDNA from early Neolithic Germany

    These results from an LBK burial site in Germany (5,500-4,900 BC) look surprisingly Near Eastern. So the question is, where were the ancestors of modern Central Europeans at this time?

    Interestingly, we do not find the most common Y chromosome hgs in modern Europe (e.g., R1b, R1a, I, and E1b1), which parallels the low frequency of the very common modern European mtDNA hg H (now at 20%–50% across Western Eurasia) in the Neolithic samples. Also, while both Neolithic Y chromosome hgs G2a3 and F* are rather rare in modern-day Europe, they have slightly higher frequencies in populations of the Near East, and the highest frequency of hg G2a is seen in the Caucasus today [15]. The few published ancient Y chromosome results from Central Europe come from late Neolithic sites and were exclusively hg R1a [31]. While speculative, we suggest this supports the idea that R1a may have spread with late Neolithic cultures from the east [31].

    Haak W, Balanovsky O, Sanchez JJ, Koshel S, Zaporozhchenko V, et al. (2010) Ancient DNA from European Early Neolithic farmers reveals their Near Eastern affinities. PLoS Biol 8(11): e1000536. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000536

  12. I znow o Scytach, ale to juz Pan Czeslaw dawno napisal, ale za to teraz macie prace naukowe o tym i bedzie tego wiecej i wiecej! Cierpliwosci!

    Tuesday, November 9, 2010
    Carpatho-Balkan origins of the steppe-belt cultures

    I’m perusing an interesting PDF about a subject close to my heart – the origins of the early European-like steppe tribes. Here are some teaser quotes and images from this 2008 paper…

    Modern research shows that at their apogee, the stockbreeding cultures of the Eurasian “steppe belt” covered a gigantic territory. From West to East, from the Middle Danube basin to Manchuria the distances exceeded 8000 kilometers without any noticeable breaks. In those times the territories occupied by mobile, aggressive steppe peoples was no less than 7 to 8 million km2 (Fig. 1) – and this during comparatively “peaceful” periods of their existence!

    In the I millennium BC the Scythian-Sarmatian culture occupied the steppes from the lower Danube to western Mongolia. The kurgan burials of Scythian-Sarmatian leaders with their grave goods rich in gold and other spectacular finds excite the interest of both research archeologists and the general public even now. The Scythians made incursions south of the main Caucasus range. At the end of VI century BC Darius and the Persian army tried to punish and break one small group of Scythian-Sarmatians, but all his attempts failed completely. Herodotus described the events in detail, and his narration makes clear the strategic invulnerability of the steppe.

    The beginning of the “steppe belt” stockbreeding cultural formation is probably connected with the origin of the Carpatho-Balkan metallurgical province (CBMP) of the Copper Age and its swift explosive formation (Chernykh 1992: 35-53). In the period of maximal distribution and production of metal, the province’s territory was about 1.3-1.4 million km2 (Fig. 2).

    Evgeny Chernykh, The “Steppe Belt” of stockbreeding cultures in Eurasia during the Early Metal Age, TRABAJOS DE PREHISTORIA, 65, N.º 2, Julio-Diciembre 2008, pp. 73-93, ISSN: 0082-5638, doi: 10.3989/tp.2008.08004

    For some related blog posts, see the following links…

    Six thousand-year-old elite Corded Ware kurgan burial mound discovered in Poland

    Evidence of earliest copper smelting in Eastern Europe 7000 BP

    Bronze Age Tarim Basin „Caucasoids” carried R1a1 (and European mtDNA lineages too)

    More on the Scythians and their origins



      The beginnings of extractive metallurgy in Eurasia are contentious. The first cast copper objects in this region emerge c. 7000 years ago, and their production has been tentatively linked to centres in the Near East. This assumption, however, is not substantiated by evidence for copper smelting in those centres. Here, we present results from recent excavations from Belovode, a Vinča culture site in Eastern Serbia, which has provided the earliest direct evidence for copper smelting to date. The earliest copper smelting activities there took place c. 7000 years ago, contemporary with the emergence of the first cast copper objects. Through optical, chemical and provenance analyses of copper slag, minerals, ores and artefacts, we demonstrate the presence of an established metallurgical technology during this period, exploiting multiple sources for raw materials. These results extend the known record of copper smelting by more than half a millennium, with substantial implications. Extractive metallurgy occurs at a location far away from the Near East, challenging the traditional model of a single origin of metallurgy and reviving the possibility of multiple, independent inventions.

  13. Jak już napisałem wcześniej PIE i R1a wg mnie trzeba szukać w kulturze Trypolskiej, w jej północnej części lub gdzieś indziej, ale w epoce kamiennej a nie w epoce miedzi czy brązu, bo to za późno wg dostępnych już danych.
    Comprehensive site chronology and ancient Mitochondrial dna analysis from Verteba cave – a Trypillian culture site of eneolithic Ukraine.

    12-08-10, 17:48 #1 gezaf
    I2a2 lineage of Cucuteni-Tripolye Culture

    The following statements appears in the Origins, age, spread and etrhnic association of European Haplogroups and suclades:

    The Slavic branch
    The origins of the Slavs goes back to circa 3000 BCE. The Slavic branch differentiated itself when the Corded Ware culture (see Germanic branch above) absorbed the Cucuteni_Tripolye culture (5200-2600 BCE) of western Ukraine and north-eastern Romania, which appears to have been composed primarily of I2a2 lineages descended directly from Paleolithic Europeans, with a small admixture of Near-Eastern immigrants (notably E-V13 and T).

    Is the statement that the Cucuteni_Tripolye culture appears to have been composed primarily of I2a2 lineage a conjecture based on the distribution of I2a2 in the Western Ukraine and north-eastern Romania, or is it based on some other factual information, such as testing of human remains?

    10-10-10, 10:09 #5 Dalmat
    Its Yamna who clashed it, not corded-ware.
    Yamna is culture of Scythians(later on known as Slavs,at least partially),and the clash may produced Sarmatians,as C.T were matriarchal paleolithic Europeans,while Scythians were indo-europeans of r1a stock.

    This conclusion came to me from Herodotus who wrote that Sarmatians(established ones,as name alone could come from pure Scythian tribe) were children of Scythian men and Amazons(which i take is metaphor for matriarchal society). The „clash” was not aggressive,but the process of Indo-Europeanization was a cultural transformation. It must be understood as a military victory in terms of successfully imposing a new administrative system, language, and religion upon the indigenous groups. (…)


    Saturday, November 22, 2008 11:56:00 am Maju said…
    All R1a among Corded Ware samples means exactly what mainstream interpretations have said so far: R1a (in Europe as in Asia) is mostly or exclusively an Indoeuropean input (and R1b is not Indoeuropean, even if it’s distantly related – not much more than R2 or Q anyhow).
    The relatively odd mtDNA most frequent clades in such sample also point to the East, no matter these matrilineal lineages were never destinied to become as succesful as their patrilineal counterpart – not in such a Patriarchal society as the Indoeuropean one certainly.

    Is there any plausible way to spread TO India, Central Asia avoiding Iran and Middle East?.
    Yes, absolutely yes.

    R1a/Kurgan original homeland (Samara region) is the easternmost portion of Europe (in other times it would have been considered Asia, as it’s East of the Volga river). Indoeuropean/R1a expansion went to South Asia (and Iran/Kurdistan, where it had a much lower Y-DNA impact) via Central Asia in a later date (Bronze Age) than to the Eastern half of Europe. Additionally, some subclades are so recent and so close between Eastern Europe and South Asia that can only be attributed to a later wave: the Scythians (which in a sense are the last genuine Indoeuropean people of he steppes, later replaced/absorbed by the Turkic tribes).

    Tuesday, November 25, 2008 6:14:00 am peterk said…
    The highest micro-satellite diversity for R1a1 is found in the population of modern day Ukraine. The early Indo-Europeans (6,000 to 7,000 years ago) had a lot of contact with the Cris and later Trypyllian Cucuteni cultures of western Ukraine, Moldova, and Rumania suggesting a close proximity. The Dnieper cataracts/rapids was a good piece of real estate and possibly close to the nucleus of the genesis of the early Indo-Europeans who later expanded in many stages east west and south, some later back migrating (Scythians). Whether it was the Pontic steppe (which I believe is obviously the case) or the Pontic-Caspian steppe region, this is the most accepted hypothesis for the Indo-European genesis.

    Tuesday, November 25, 2008 11:35:00 am Maju said…
    „The highest micro-satellite diversity for R1a1 is found in the population of modern day Ukraine. The early Indo-Europeans (6,000 to 7,000 years ago) had a lot of contact with the Cris and later Trypyllian Cucuteni cultures of western Ukraine, Moldova, and Rumania suggesting a close proximity.”

    I’m fine with the first part of this paragraph: that Ukranians seem to host the highest R1a diversity and that this is directly related to early IE presence in that reagion.

    But I really cannot agree with the emphasis in Cucuteni-Tripylle. This culture only occupied the SW corner of Ukraine (and also both Moldavias), while most of pre-IE Ukraine was actually (along with the Donets basin) part of a different Neolithic culture: the Dniepr-Donets one.

    In fact, it was this Dniepr-Donets culture which suffered the first IE penertration of all, c. 3500 BCE, becoming the Srednij-Stog II complex (sometimes called „culture” but rather a complex mixture of pre-IE and IE elements actually). Dniepr-Donets elements also seem to have migrated in NW direction prior to IE presence, altering the ethno-cultural composition of the Baltic area (specially strong influence in East Baltic countries and Sweden but also influential in Denmark and the northern continental coast).

    Cucuteni-Tripylle actually had separate dynamics and was, as I understand it, subject to intense plundering by neighbouring IEs in the following centuries, only gradually receeding anyhow. But its territory was not central in IE expansion in Europe, unlike that of former Dniepr-Donets culture (or also the Poland-East Germany area). C-T also had in its formation a much greater influence from Balcan-Danubian Neolithic and is itself considered one of the „Danubian” cultures (though had an older substrate, probably native).

    Tuesday, November 25, 2008 7:01:00 pm pconroy said…
    eurologist, … and (ii) a very successful military and agricultural invasion/expansion.

    This need not be the case. R1a and particularly R1a1 were probably spread into South Asia by 2 driving forces:

    1. Elite dominance – whereby powerful men had more wives – from the native population – and more offspring, over many generations. Like the Genshis Khan, Nial Naoighiallach phenomenon.

    2. R1a1 Steppe herders may very well have carried the Lactose Persistance gene (LCT), that gave them a huge nutritional advantage in a dairying economy, like that of South Asia. Here the real spread is of the LCT gene into the population, and R1a1 is just carried along for the ride!

    In other words a relatively small percentage of R1a1 invaders, could result in a large percentage of descendants a few thousand years later.

    Wednesday, November 26, 2008 5:07:00 pm peterk said…
    I think Sredny Stoh, or „place at the middle stack” is very central to the question of IE origins. (Middle stack refers to a now flooded haystack shaped island on the Dnieper at the southern end of the Dnieper rapids). Whether certain cultural elements were imposed from the Khvalynsk from the east on the Volga or blended with the population living in the area, there is a continuity of cultural practices such as burial locations and stone tool types.

    Sredny Stoh also has the first kurgans to be ever placed on the steppe at Kvityana and Maiorka. There is much cultural interaction between C-T and IE including stone maces, pottery types, trade/gifts, etc. The Dnieper-Donets people were buried with polished stone maces, copper and gold ornaments, and ornamental plaques made of boar’s tusk. This is well documented, and these people obviously had a big influence on the soon to be IE, if not central.

    I disagree with your opinions, let’s agree to disagree. This all happened a very long time ago. Among others, I’ve read J.P. Mallory „In Search of Indo-Europeans” and David W. Anthony „The Horse the Wheel and Language”. There is no way we are going to resolve these complex and contentious issues in a blog. A lot of it is a question of interpretation leading to much to much room for subjective reasoning claiming to be fact. You think IE came 100% from the Samara displacing 100% of the Dnieper-Donets. This ignores the evidence of cultural continuity of Dnieper-Donets into Sredny-Stoh with some changes and innovations. Not only do I disagree, but I believe your motives are biased and subjective.

    Linguists believe the root *tawro-s is from an Afro-Asiatic super family perhaps spoken by the Neolithic Cris, later C-T. It came down into IE as „bull” and is non-IE in origin. Cris being a Balkan Neolithic culture.

    Wednesday, November 26, 2008 6:06:00 pm pconroy said…
    Maju, paterk,
    I think you both have part of the solution correct, as I think the emergence of the IE speakers was from a core of Dniepr-Donets people, as influenced initially by the Cucuteni-Trypolje, then by the Sredny-Stog – domesticted horse introduced – and lastly by Maykop culture, which is really a Northern outpost of the Kura-Araxes culture – who introduced chariots and metal-working to the steppe. The latter is the key to tying everything together.

    The Kura-Araxes are located close to the heartland of early domestication of cereals and cattle in the Northern fertile crescent, and are bordered on one side by the Taurus mountains where I believe the word for cattle comes from – the semitic root *tawro-s.

    The would all tie in nicely with the genesis of the Tocharians from the North Caucusus area – as an analysis of their plaid/tartan clothes tells us.

    So I think that the infleunce of the Kura-Araxes culture, and maybe some population movement from the South Caucusus to the Steppe, provided the means and the impetus for the IE peoples to expand. I don’t think the KA people were IE speakers, but may have spoken a semitic or kartvelian language, and introduced loan-words from it into the IE language.

    peterk said…
    Thursday, November 27, 2008 6:44:00 amDeineke,
    The best I can come up to support the „oft repeated” claim of Ukrainians having the highest micro-satellite diversity of all R1a1 is Passorino, Semino, and Wells. (One should note, y-chromosome testing is not exactly a high priority for many modern day Ukrainians). However, I believe improving living standards (despite 70+ years of totalitarian communism) improve the prospects for more y-chromosome testing in modern day Ukraine in the medium term.

    Also, Ukraine was one of the 3 or 4refuges during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in Europe, possibly creating a sort of bottleneck for R1a1 in the region of the Dnieper due to genetic drift.

    Thursday, November 27, 2008 10:22:00 am Maju said…
    Hmmmm… Khvalynsk (Samara) seems much older than any of your putative origines and is also the first to develope Kurgan burial, so characteristic of early IE expansion. Additionally they were surely in direct contact with the Botai culture of Khazakstan, who may have been the first to domesticate horses at large scale (a very apparent element in IE expansion, overall and specially at the beginning).

    What may have happened is that the increase of hierarchization may have evolved further west in the Sredny Stog II complex, prior or parallely to other even more to the west epysodes of expansions (Baalberge, Balcanic-Panonnian early Kurgan remains).

    Seredny Stog II is in any case a complex phenomenon („areal term” I read as I re-check) where different actual ethno-cultural realities surely existed.

    Kura-Araxes is also of that period of the late 4th milennium. In general, we can say with great security, I believe, that both Kura-Araxes as the Kurgan patches of Seredny Stog II/Pit Grave are the first geographic expansion (complex) of IEs, which was followed by the „jump” to Eastern Germany (Baalberge) and the raids into SE Europe. The ultimate cultural source was East of the Volga in any case, though it’s very likely that it got „ignited” in other areas as well, where hierarchical domination was easier to implement after conquest.

    Trying to divert the chronological order of Kurgan (characteristic tumular burials) expansion doesn’t make any sense to me. This doesn’t mean that the conquered (or sometimes maybe just directly incorporated/assimilated) peoples of other Eastern European areas did not feed the genetic pool driven by this expansion. Nevertheless, their influence in Central European IE developements after the first incursions seem very limited (almost nil, I’d say, with a possible exception at the origin of Globular Pottery/Corded Ware).


      The Prehistory of the Silk Road
      By Elena Efimovna Kuzʹmina
      The culture also is termed the Middle Eneolithic or Developed Eneolithic or Proto-kurgan. It was preceded by the Early Eneolithic or Samara culture, from which it came, and succeeded by the Late Eneolithic, or Early Yamna culture, to which it descended.
      The Dnieper–Donets culture (ca. 5th—4th millennium BC) was a Neolithic (New Stone Age) culture in the area north of the Black Sea/Sea of Azov between the Dnieper and Donets River.

      There are parallels with the contemporaneous Samara culture. The Dnieper–Donets culture was succeeded by the Yamna culture.(…)
      The Yamna culture (Ukrainian: Ямна культура, Russian: Ямная культура, „Pit [Grave] Culture”, from Russian/Ukrainian яма, „pit”) is a late copper age/early Bronze Age culture of the Southern Bug/Dniester/Ural region (the Pontic steppe), dating to the 36th–23rd centuries BC. The name also appears in English as Pit Grave Culture or Ochre Grave Culture.

      The culture was predominantly nomadic, with some agriculture practiced near rivers and a few hillforts.

      The Yamna culture was preceded by the Sredny Stog culture, Khvalynsk culture and Dnieper-Donets culture, while succeeded by the Catacomb culture and the Srubna culture.
      Characteristic for the culture are the inhumations in kurgans (tumuli) in pit graves with the dead body placed in a supine position with bent knees. The bodies were covered in ochre. Multiple graves have been found in these kurgans, often as later insertions.[citation needed]

      Significantly, animal grave offerings were made (cattle, sheep, goats and horse), a feature associated with Proto-Indo-Europeans (including Proto-Indo-Iranians).[2]

      The earliest remains in Eastern Europe of a wheeled cart were found in the „Storozhova mohyla” kurgan (Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine, excavated by Trenozhkin A.I.) associated with the Yamna culture.
      The Samara culture is considered the eneolithic culture of the region, along with the subsequent Khvalynsk culture and the still later early Yamna culture.
      The range of the Samara culture is the forest-steppe terrain of the middle Volga, but the North Caspian culture of the lower Volga is early Eneolithic as well. In the context of the Kurgan hypothesis, this range is regarded as a convenient place for speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language to have exchanged some lexical items with Uralic-language-speakers. As a cross-roads between east and west, north and south, it must have received influences and stimulation from many peoples. Moreover, such a location would require a value orientation toward war and defense, which we know the Indo-Europeans had. They were a warrior culture. They invaded cultures that Gimbutas claims were not bellicose in nature, despite non-hunting weapons found in graves.
      The Sredny Stog culture is a pre-kurgan archaeological culture, named after the Dnieper river islet of Seredny Stih where it was first located, dating from the 5th millennium BC. It was situated across the Dnieper river on both its shores, with sporadic settlements to the west and east.[1] One of the best known sites associated with this culture is Dereivka, located on the right bank of the Omelnik, a tributary of the Dnieper, and is the most impressive site within the Sredny Stog culture complex, being about 2,000 square meters in area.

      The Sredny Stog culture seems to have had contact with the agricultural Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in the west and was a contemporary of the Khvalynsk culture.
      The expert Dmytro Telegin has divided the chronology of Sredny Stog into two distinct phases. Phase II (ca. 4000–3500 BC) used corded ware pottery which may have originated there, and stone battle-axes of the type later associated with expanding Indo-European cultures to the West. Most notably, it has perhaps the earliest evidence of horse domestication (in phase II), with finds suggestive of cheek-pieces (psalia).

      In the context of the modified Kurgan hypothesis of Marija Gimbutas, this pre-kurgan archaeological culture could represent the Urheimat (homeland) of the Proto-Indo-European language. The culture ended at around 3500 BC, when Yamna culture expanded westward replacing Sredny Stog, and coming into direct contact with the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture in the western Ukraine.


      Pit Grave Culture or Kurgan Culture (3500 – 2800 BC): The Pit Grave Culture extends over the entire Pontic Steppe. This is the late PIE (Proto Indo European) phase of Indo European unity where the PIE peoples stayed together prior to their disintegration and movement towards various destinations.

      Catacomb, Hut Grave Culture (2800 – 2000 BC): This is the Proto Indo Iranian (PII) Bronze Age culture that existed in the Ukrainian Steppes. Relics of the culture are widespread in the region along the Dnieper River, the coastal region the Sea of Azov, Crimea and along the Don River.

      Timber Grave Culture (2000 – 800 BC): Around Samara on the Volga Basin, this is the Proto Iranian Culture. The Proto Indo Iranian peoples arrived here from Azov Sea. The Iranians stayed back and the Indo Aryans proceeded further east to Arkaim-Sintashta.

      Andronovo Culture, Arkaim-Sintashta (1800 – 900 BC): South of the Ural Mountains this is an Indo Aryan Culture. The Indo-Aryans, the eastern branch of the Indo-Iranians eventually reached Northern Iran, Afghanistan and Indian subcontinent in the next few centuries.

      Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex, BMAC Culture (2200 – 1700 BC): This is an Indo Aryan Culture in Central Asia. It’s contemporary to the northern Andronovo Culture (1800 – 900 BC). From here the Indo-Aryans moved to northern Iran, Afghanistan and India.

      Vakhsh – Biskent Culture: Contemporary to BMAC & Andronovo, it’s an Indo Aryan Culture. The last segment of the Aryan trail to India may be through through Vakhsh, via Vakshu or Oxus/Vakhsh, Kabul, Swat rivers.

      Kalash Culture (1600 BC till date): A very unique group of Indo-Aryans in Hindukush have preserved many of the Rig Vedic and early Indo-Aryan features including language and culture. Kalash is the last place in the Aryan trail before entering into the final destination of Punjab.

      Gandhara Grave Culture (1700 – 1400 BC): Rig Vedic Culture in Punjab in Pakistan & India

      1. Kurgan Culture: 3500 – 2800 BC

      This is the beginning of the Aryan Trail. This can be treated as one of the original homelands, Urheimat, of the Indo European peoples. The Anatolian and the Tocharian branches of the Indo European peoples had already separated by this time. This culture is characterized by kurgan or burial mounds near rivers. Burial mounds may not be a unique thing but burial near rivers is something that perhaps has reference only in the Vedic texts. Though burial is not common among the Hindus but in early Rig Vedic days burial was a common thing. In one Rig Vedic hymn there’s a reference to going to the house of clay, mrinmayam griham.

      In the kurgans the corpses were covered with red ocher and laid either in supine position or on their sides with flexed legs. The excavated grave goods provide important information about the socio-economic structures of the culture. Their major economic occupation was animal husbandry. Agriculture, hunting and fishing were of secondary importance. They usually lived in surface dwellings, often on high hills, in fortified settlements. Oval houses were secured with walls and moats. Fortification may imply conflicts. The houses were constructed with clay and reeds. Extensive copper items were found in the settlements. Excavations at kurgans revealed primitive carts pulled by oxen. Incidentally the area north of Azov Sea in Ukraine is the site where horse was first domesticated during the Srendy Stog Culture between 4500 and 3500 BC. As horses are the trademarks of the Aryans and the Indo Europeans many scholars espouse to the Kurgan Theory of identifying the Kurgan Culture with the proto Indo Europeans.

      An interesting linguistic observation is that all Indo European languages have cognates for various parts of a solid wheel like the wheel itself, the axle and the nave, center of the wheel. But there’s no cognate for chariot and spoked wheel. This may imply that when all the Indo European peoples stayed together a chariot and a spoked wheel was unknown. All they knew was the ancient cart with solid wheel and accordingly they had words only for that.

      The Latin colus, Greek kuklos, Persian charkh, Sanskrit chakra all come from the Indo European keklo, meaning wheel. The cognate of the Sanskrit ratha, meaning chariot, is Latin rota, which comes from the Indo European roto meaning wheel and not chariot. The cognates for axle are aksha in Sanskrit, axis in Latin, akson in Greek, all coming from Indo European aks. Similarly nave, the center of the wheel, comes from Indo European nebh and has Sanskrit nabhi, Avestan naba, Persian naf, Latin umbilicus, Greek omphalos and German nabel as cognates.

      But on the other hand the Sanskrit ratha for chariot doesn’t have any cognate in any other IE languages with the same meaning. Interesting is also the word ara in Sanskrit, meaning spoke. It comes from the IE root ero, meaning to move. Incidentally the Sanskrit root ri comes from the same root and has the same meaning, to move. It’s very likely that both ratha and ara for chariot and spoke are later creations of the Aryans after the chariot and spoked wheels were discovered later. Interestingly the first remains of chariot and spoked wheel appear much later around 2000 BC near Arkaim-Sintashta, mentioned below.

      Storozhova Mohyla, a place in Dnepropetrovsk, is one of the sites for kurgan or burial mounds. It dates back to 3000 BC.

    • Polecam tę stronę, ma bardzo dużo zalinkowanych danych:

      Indo European (IE) Topics

      Cognates in various IE languages: Contains some commonly used words in Proto Indo European (PIE), Proto Indo Iranian (PII), Sanskrit, Avestan, Persian, Greek, Latin, German and English
      Indo European Proper Names: Some Rig Vedic male, female and place names with their probable Proto Indo European (PIE), Proto Indo Iranian (PII) and Avestan forms
      Selected reads on Indo European history
      Selected reads on Indo European Linguistics

      Rig Vedic Topics

      List of some prominent Rig Vedic composers and Kings
      Selected reads on Rig Veda
      Selected compilations of Rig Vedic topics
      Selected Verses from Rig Veda (The 10 books arranged chronologically)
      Selected Verses from Rig Veda (Topic wise)

      Vedas – Original and Translation

      Rig Veda
      Devanagari Book 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
      English Translation
      Shukla (White) Yajur Veda: Devanagari English Translation
      Krishna (Black) Yajur Veda
      Taitiriya Samhita: Devanagari English Translation
      Sama Veda: Devanagari English Translation
      Atharva Veda: Devanagari English Translation


      Kalash Topics

      General reads on Kalash
      Selected Kalash words and the corresponding Persian & Sanskrit forms

      Indian History


    Comprehensive Site Chronology and Ancient Mitochondrial DNA Analysis from Verteba Cave – a Trypillian Culture Site of Eneolithic Ukraine

    Alexey G. Nikitin, Mykhailo P. Sokhatsky, Mykola M. Kovaliukh, Mykhailo Y. Videiko
    Interdisciplinaria Archaeologica 1(1-2): 9–18, 2010. Online First, 14 April 2011

    This manuscript presents a study of a ritual site of the Trypillian Culture complex (tc) in western
    Ukraine where material artefacts are found side-by-side with human and animal remains. The organic
    content in pottery sherds made it possible to carbon date the ceramics found with bone remains, thus
    allowing a reference point for carbon dating bone collagen. this allowed us to develop a comprehensive
    chronology of the usage of the cave. Mitochondrial dna (mtdna) extracted from human remains shed
    additional light on the history of the site’s occupation by early agrarians on the territory of Ukraine.

    P.16. “of the seven samples from which ancient mtdna were successfully retrieved five belong to the pre-HV branch of the r lineage of mtdna phylogenetic tree (torroni et al.
    2006), and include one pre-HV specimen, two HV/V and two h specimens. the two remaining specimens belong to the Jt cluster of the mtdna phylogenetic tree (table 1). the chronologically oldest sample in the set belongs to the t4 haplogroup and the youngest sample to the J haplogroup (root sequence).”

    p.17. “Verteba is a unique site of pre-historic human activity, which was almost continuously utilised by local trypillian groups for nearly a millennium. the site provides an unprecedented insight into the ritual practices of neolithic people in eastern europe. unlike most tc archaeological sites Verteba contains superbly preserved biological remains which can be examined in the context of material culture artefacts, aiding in a comprehensive understanding of the site’s legacy. the radiocarbon chronology presented in this report makes Verteba the most extensively dated tc site, and the aDNA information obtained makes Verteba the first tc site to provide insight into the genetic history of the tc inhabitants.”

  16. WAŻNE!!! Sugeruję to przetrawić
    Ten pdf się dobrze kopiuje, więc można go łatwo przetłumaczyć przez google translate. 🙂

    Digest October 1, 2012


    Genetic Links in Eastern Europe (STR and SNP)
    Historical Background
    The Eastern European genetic region includes a large area between the Baltic Sea, Balkan Peninsula, Black Sea, and Ural Mountains (see map in Figure 1).

    Today, the cultures living here speak a variety of languages. These include the Indo-European Balto-Slavic languages (such as Lithuanian, Polish, and Slovak); as well as Uralic languages (such as Hungarian, Estonian, and Erzya). Classical Greco-Roman writers left only vague desc riptions of cultures in this region, such as Cimmerians, Scythians, Venedi, Fenni, and Antes. The historical relationships of those early cultures with later Baltic, Slavic, and Uralic speaking cultures are not entirely clear.
    For this reason, this article will emphasize more ancient processes that reshaped Eastern Europe between the Copper Age (Chalcolithic) and Bronze Age periods.

  17. UWAGA!!! UWAGA!!! UWAGA!!! No i co wy na to???

    Proto-Indo-European speakers of the Late Tripolye culture as the inventors of wheeled vehicles
    Posted on March 12, 2009 | 3 Comments

    Proto-Indo-European speakers of the Late Tripolye culture as the inventors of wheeled vehicles: Linguistic and archaeological considerations

    Suggesting the Cucuteni-Tripolye as the source of PIE. Something I did wonder once after seeing a pretty old wheeled toy from that area. They were the most advanced civilisation (not too strong a word, they had small cities) of Neolithic Europe, and were one of the first cultures to use metal.

    Cucuteni-Trypillian cow-on-wheels, 3950-3650 B.C

    One of the more interesting points from it was that word for wheel you find in other languages seems to have a root in the PIE word to turn/rotate. As far as I know, the worlds oldest wheel is 5,300 BP, dragged up from a Slovenian Marsh.

    Jim Mallory (1989: 163), on the other hand, goes a long way towards the here proposed solutionwith the following observations:

    “Tomas Gamkrelidze and Vyach[e]slav Ivanov… have noted that … Proto-Indo-European *kwekwlo- bears striking similarity to the words for vehicles in Sumerian gigir, Semitic *galgal-, and Kartvelian *grgar. With the putative origin of wheeled vehicles set variously to Pontic-Caspian, Transcasucasia or to Sumer, we may be witnessing the original word for a wheeled vehicle in four different language families. Furthermore, as the Proto-Indo-European form is built on an Indo-European verbal root *kwel- ‘to turn, to twist’, it is unlikely that the Indo-Europeans borrowed their word from one of the other languages. This need not, of course, indicate that the Indo-Europeans invented wheeled vehicles, but it might suggest that they were in some form of contact relation with these Near Eastern languages in the fourth millennium BC.”

    Since the Trypillians weren’t that far at all from the steppes area, I can see this might have some validity. The Dniester site is just in my ‘had wheels’ at the right time zone, and the timing isn’t massively far off. This might allow a compromise between the 9,000 BP ’first farmers’ and 5,500 BP ‘Kurgan’ theory, as they probably did speak the languge of the expanding farmers; that part of the world had a respectable demic wave from Turkey appear in it.

    Early Links between Europe and the Caucasus (SNP) .


      Wednesday, June 30, 2010
      Evidence of earliest copper smelting in Eastern Europe 7000 BP

      Eastern Europeans weren’t strangers to metallurgy in prehistoric times (see Kelekna 2009 quote below), but it’s been widely assumed that they acquired this technology from the Near East. Perhaps not, as a new study published in the Journal of Archaeological Science suggests…

      The beginnings of extractive metallurgy in Eurasia are contentious. The first cast copper objects in this region emerge c7000 years ago, and their production has been tentatively linked to centres in the Near East. This assumption, however, is not substantiated by evidence for copper smelting in those centres. Here, we present results from recent excavations from Belovode, a Vinča culture site in Eastern Serbia, which has provided the earliest direct evidence for copper smelting to date. The earliest copper smelting activities there took place c7000 years ago, contemporary with the emergence of the first cast copper objects. Through optical, chemical and provenance analyses of copper slag, minerals, ores and artefacts, we demonstrate the presence of an established metallurgical technology during this period, exploiting multiple sources for raw materials. These results extend the known record of copper smelting by more than half a millennium, with substantial implications. Extractive metallurgy occurs at a location far away from the Near East, challenging the traditional model of a single origin of metallurgy and reviving the possibility of multiple, independent inventions.

  18. O trawieniu lub nie mleka i kiedy i gdzie to nastąpiło…

    Lactase persistence spread with Neolithic Linearbandkeramik

    Following acceptance at the 0.5% level and regression adjustment we found that the most probable location where an LP allele first underwent selection among dairying farmers lies in a region between the central Balkans and central Europe

    Just an archived item- I’ve posted a news item on this before but it’s nice to have the paper. The lactose tolerance seems to only about 8,000 years old, and has occured independantly in several different pastoralist groups around the world. I guess retention of a juvenille trait is an easy mutation for the genome to make. Last time I looked it was worked out on a computer simulation to have spread with the Linearbandkeramik culture

    The present study should contribute to archaeological debate concerning the origin of dairying in Europe. Although some scholars assume that dairying was not practiced during the earliest phases of the Neolithic and that it first spread over Europe in the 3rd millennium B.C. (47, 48), others, based on osteometric sexing of cattle and goats, suggest an onset of dairying practices in southeastern Europe and southern Germany between 7000 and 6500 B.P. (49). Others claim that the technical skill of dairying came to Europe already as part of the fully developed Neolithic package with the first farmers (50, 51). The latter view is supported by the earliest archaeometric evidence for dairying in Europe ≈7900–7500 B.P. in Hungary (52) and ≈6100 B.P. in Britain (53, 54). These dates suggest that dairying practices came to Europe nearly simultaneously with cereal agriculture and domestic animals. However, the absence of the 13.910*T allele in our Neolithic samples indicates that the early farmers in Europe were not yet adapted to the consumption of unprocessed milk. Dairying is unlikely to have spread uniformly over Europe, and the use of milk in the Early Neolithic may have been rare. Although our data are consistent with strong selection for LP beginning with the introduction of cattle to Europe ≈8800 B.P., it is unlikely that fresh milk consumption was widespread in Europe before frequencies of the 13.910*T allele had risen appreciably during the millennia after the onset of farming.
    Spread of Farming and Origin of Lactase Persistence in Neolithic Age

    Aug. 28, 2013 — Scientists have brought to light the spread of dairy farming in Europe and the development of milk tolerance in adult humans. It was after the transition from a hunter-gatherer society to that of a settled farming culture in the Neolithic period that dairy-related animal husbandry first evolved, and this practice spread from the Middle East to all of Europe.

    Although the LP allele is most frequent in Northern Europe today, the simulations that best explained the observed data (on the distribution of LP and the arrival time of farming at different locations) required LP- dairying co-evolution to start in an area between the Carpathian Basin and Central Europe between 6,260 and 8,680 years ago. The LP selection coefficient had inferred values between 0.0518 and 0.159 (in dairying farmers only). The inferred location and dates for the co-evolution of LP and dairying correspond well with the origins of the LBK culture in the Lake Balaton region. This again is in accordance with Bramanti et al. (2009) who inferred a massive immigration of the LBK farmers from this region.

    Lactase persistence (LP) is common among people of European ancestry, but with the exception of some African, Middle Eastern and southern Asian groups, is rare or absent elsewhere in the world. Lactase gene haplotype conservation around a polymorphism strongly associated with LP in Europeans (−13,910 C/T) indicates that the derived allele is recent in origin and has been subject to strong positive selection. Furthermore, ancient DNA work has shown that the −13,910*T (derived) allele was very rare or absent in early Neolithic central Europeans. It is unlikely that LP would provide a selective advantage without a supply of fresh milk, and this has lead to a gene-culture coevolutionary model where lactase persistence is only favoured in cultures practicing dairying, and dairying is more favoured in lactase persistent populations. We have developed a flexible demic computer simulation model to explore the spread of lactase persistence, dairying, other subsistence practices and unlinked genetic markers in Europe and western Asia’s geographic space. Using data on −13,910*T allele frequency and farming arrival dates across Europe, and approximate Bayesian computation to estimate parameters of interest, we infer that the −13,910*T allele first underwent selection among dairying farmers around 7,500 years ago in a region between the central Balkans and central Europe, possibly in association with the dissemination of the Neolithic Linearbandkeramik culture over Central Europe.

    • Bez komentarza…
      7,000-Year-Old Pottery Shards Hint at Milk Use in the Kuyavia Region of Poland

      Oddly perforated pottery fragments excavated from a site in central Poland in the 1970s offer an answer to how these early farmers used milk. The fragmented vessels resembled crude sieves like those used by later peoples for cheese making. In 2012 a team of geochemists and archeologists analyzed the absorbed organic residues found in the perforated fragments (5). The lipid residues extracted from the perforated pottery were compared to those extracted from “cooking pots” excavated from the same region in Poland. Because metabolism of adipose and milk fat result in significantly different δ13C ratios, the researchers were able to distinguish the lipids in the proposed sieves as dairy fats and those in cooking pots as adipose fats. These results support the idea that early Neolithic populations were producing fermented milk products (cheese and yogurt).

        Tuesday, October 19, 2010
        Six thousand-year-old elite Corded Ware kurgan burial mound discovered in Poland

        Archaeologists studying the site of a planned highway in southeastern Poland have made a stunning discovery; a kurgan burial mound dating to the Copper Age. According to the Polish press, who seem unusually excited by this archaeological news item, the 6,000-year-old kurgan and its contents are a major find that might change the way we view European prehistory. Basically, it’s older than any other Corded Ware site by about a thousand years.

        The kurgan sits in a forest near the town of Szczytna and harbors several burials, one apparently belonging to a „warrior prince” (my translation from the Polish „Książę-Wojownik”). This so called warrior prince is laying in a crouched position, on his side, in classic Corded Ware burial style. His grave also contains an extremely rare copper battle axe, as well as a copper vase, cups and jewelery. However, his isn’t the main burial within the kurgan, so we could be in for a few more surprises yet when the archaeologists start working on the main chamber.

        Unfortunately, I see no mention of any attempts to extract DNA from the prince’s skeleton. However, the article linked to above does say that more detailed studies of his remains will follow, and that the site is well preserved. So I’m really hoping attempts have been made to minimize contamination, and preparations are well under way to at least get a mtDNA result, if not Y-DNA (which is much more difficult to extract from ancient remains).

        By the way, the only Corded Ware skeletons tested for Y-DNA to date, from a burial site in Germany, belonged to haplogroup R1a1a (see here). The haplotypes matched most closely those of a couple of living individuals in Poland and European Russia, but were in general most similar to modern German R1a1a lineages. If successfully tested, I expect this warrior prince to carry an R1a1a haplotype typical of modern Poles.

        I should also mention that kurgan burial mounds from South Siberia, apparently left there by so called Andronovo tribes of the Bronze and Iron ages, also contained European-like individuals carrying R1a1a. According to archaeologists, these people were descendants of European migrants who set off east to mine for copper, bronze and iron. Their autosomal SNPs suggest they had very similar pigmentation traits to modern North, Central and East Europeans (see here).

        Link to source: Przełomowe odkrycie archeologiczne. Książę leżał na trasie A4.

        Edit: I did some checking last night, and it seems this Corded Ware kurgan from Southeastern Poland is the oldest in Eurasia (6,000 YBP). But I’d like to hear from anyone who knows of source that mentions a kurgan older than this.

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